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Analysis and Rebuttal of Development of an In-Water Intervention in a Lifeguard Protocol



6 – 13

We review the paper by Hunsucker and Davison published in the International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education in 2010. The authors’ two-part goal was to describe a protocol they named "in-water intervention" (IWI) that uses abdominal thrusts (ATs) and to report on its effectiveness at assisting drowning victims in waterparks. We identify serious shortcomings in the paper’s methodology, interpretation and use of the literature, and ethical principles. We conclude that their primary assertions were unsubstantiated by the evidence they presented.


Authors: Peter G. Wernicki, Peter R. Chambers, Roy R. Fielding, Terri A. Lees, David Markenson, Francesco Pia, Linda Quan

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