Post-World War II improvements in socioeconomic conditions, sanitation, and nutrition have led to significant increases in life expectancy throughout the industrialized world. By the end of the century, population aging has expanded to become a truly worldwide concern with significant economic and social implications for most countries. In China prior to the1980s, relatively little attention was paid to the aging of the population, probably because of the need to focus on controlling population growth in general. By the mid-80s, however, it had become apparent that both the absolute number and the relative proportion of older adults were increasing rapidly and that more attention would need to be focused on population aging. In response to these demographic trends, in recent years there has been an increasing focus on issues related to the health and fitness of older people in China.