In this study, a questionnaire translated from a national survey on physical activity of 2,002 U.S. adults (Morrow, Jackson, Bazzarre, Milne, & Blair, 1999) was adopted to survey a random sample of 812 Chinese adults through a citywide telephone interview. The respondents demonstrated poor awareness of the role of physical activity in disease prevention. Older adults possessed poorer knowledge of physical activity but higher activity levels than their younger counterparts did. Results indicated that the level and knowledge of physical activity of Chinese adults are related to age. The perceived importance of physical activity was the lowest among other health behaviors. Age, educational level, and knowledge of appropriate exercise prescription to achieve health benefits were factors used to discriminate among sedentary, somewhat active, and physically active groups. The importance of intervention programs to raise the physical activity level and knowledge of Chinese adults was demonstrated by this study.