Anterior knee pain syndrome (AKPS) represents a significant problem for patients and sports medicine clinicians. Many predisposing factors have been associated with AKPS. Considerable attention has been given to quadriceps strengthening. Specifically the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscle is targeted for selective strengthening. Because of the VMO’s oblique attachment to the patella, researchers report that proper dynamic alignment of the patella is dependent on VMO control. Given the lack of scientific information and agreement concerning the rehabilitation of patients with AKPS, the clinician and patient often become frustrated with the lack of progress during rehabilitation. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to clarify the current literature concerning the role of the VMO.