Articles Management Techniques Used by High School Physical Education Teachers
The purpose of this study was to describe the management techniques used by high school physical education teachers immediately before (preactive) and after (reactive) student behavior. Eight experienced physical educators were videotaped as they each taught four lessons of their regular schedule. Formal and informal interviews with the teachers were audiotaped and/or recorded in field notes. Management techniques observed during lessons or described during interviews were analyzed by deduction using the 22 categories of Henkel's (1991) Physical Education Pupil Control Inventory (PEPCI). New categories were developed by induction to accommodate observed or discussed techniques that could not be coded into Henkel's categories. These secondary physical education teachers used 28 different management techniques, including 21 (75%) from Henkel's PEPCI and 7 (25%) others observed by the researcher or described by the teachers. Findings contribute to a foundation for further research into the positive management of student behavior.