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Applied Research Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Sport Psychology Attitudes--Revised Form: A Multiple Group Investigation



Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to develop a revised form of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ; Martin, Wrisberg, Beitel, & Lounsbury, 1997).  The 50-item ATSSPCQ was administered to 533 athletes (M = 18.03 ± 2.71).  Exploratory alpha factor analysis with varimax rotation produced four factors: (a) stigma tolerance, (b) confidence in sport psychology consultation, (c) personal openness, and (d) cultural preference.  The new questionnaire, the Sport Psychology Attitudes – Revised form (SPA-R), was then administered to 379 United States, 234 United Kingdom, and 443 German athletes (M = 20.37 ± 5.13).  Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the factorial validity of the four-factor model for the SPA-R for male and female athletes, late adolescent and adult athletes, and athletes from different countries.  Psychometric characteristics of the SPA-R are described and implications related to sport psychology consultation and research are discussed.


Authors: Scott B. Martin, Michael Kellmann, David Lavallee, Stephen J. Page

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