The present study tested the effects of self-efficacy, past performance, personal goal setting, and self-satisfaction on swimming performance. Participants (N = 42) performed four trials of a specific swimming task with 10-min intervals between each trial. During the third and fourth trials they performed trials after setting personal goals and completing self-efficacy and self-satisfaction scales. Results showed significant improvement in level of performance in these two trials. Past performance, self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, and personal goal setting were predictors of performance at the third and the fourth trial. A LISREL VI path analysis indicated that past performance was the main determinant of future performance. Personal goal setting was affected by level of past performance, as well as by perceived self-efficacy and satisfaction. In a second stage of analysis, past performance was eliminated, and results supported the mediating role of personal goals between self-efficacy and performance.