Psychological Well-Being in Wheelchair Sport Participants and Nonparticipants

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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This paper considered (a) the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants and wheelchair sport nonparticipants, and (b) the influence of competitive level on the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants. Psychological well-being was evaluated by considering mood, trait anxiety, self-esteem, mastery, and individual self-perceptions of health and well-being. Wheelchair sport participants exhibited an iceberg profile of positive well-being with lower tension, depression, anger, and confusion and higher vigor than the sport nonparticipant group. The sport participant group also showed significantly greater levels of mastery and more positive perceptions of their health and well-being than the sport nonparticipant group. International athletes had (a) higher levels of vigor than the national and recreational groups; (b) lower levels of anxiety than the regional and recreational groups; (c) higher levels of self-esteem than the national, regional, and recreational groups; (d) higher levels of mastery than the regional and recreational groups; and (e) more positive perceptions of their well-being than the national, regional, and recreational groups.

Elizabeth Campbell is with the Department of Sport and Environmental Science, Crewe and Alsager Faculty, Manchester Metropolitan University, Alsager, Cheshire ST7 2HL, UK. Graham Jones is with the Department of PE, Sports Science, and Recreation Management, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK.

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