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This study examined motor learning in persons with Down syndrome (DS), persons with undifferentiated developmental disabilities (UnDD), and persons without disabilities (ND). Participants were instructed (either by verbal instruction or visual demonstration) to move a cursor to three items displayed on a computer screen. Results indicated that the ND group had superior performances to the other two groups for both instruction conditions. Participants with DS performed the task with both longer response and movement times when instructed verbally. In a transfer condition, results revealed the UnDD group displayed poor transfer, while participants with DS showed positive transfer from visual to verbal protocols. These results provide some evidence that persons with DS may be able to consolidate visual information to facilitate verbal-motor learning.
Brian Maraj is with the Perceptual Motor Behavior Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E-436 Van Vliet Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Canada T6G 2H9. E-mail: email@example.com. Li Li, Rebecca Hillman, and Jennifer Jeansonne are with the Department of Kinesiology at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Shannon (Robertson) Ringenbach is with the Motor Development Laboratory at Arizona State University, Tempe.