Performance of Bimanual Circles and Lines by Adults with Down Syndrome

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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The aim of this study was to investigate differences among information that varied in interference during drawing tasks in adults with DS. Adults with DS and two comparison groups (Mental Age = MA; Chronological Age = CA) drew bimanual circles and lines coordinated with 3 decreasing rate metronomes: visual information in front of the participant (visual interference), visual information under the hands (reduced visual interference), and auditory information (no visual interference). There were no group differences between metronome conditions, although adults with DS maintained a constant rate despite changing metronome rates. For measures of between hand coordination, the MA group was more variable than adults with DS and the CA group and circles were more variable than lines. These results suggest that adults with DS have difficulty following timing information, regardless of type, for repetitive tasks.

Shannon D. Ringenbach and Annica B. Ericsson are with the Motor Development Laboratory in the Department of Kinesiology at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-0404. E-mail: James C. Kao is with the Department of Human Performance at San Jose State University, San Jose, CA.

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