This study examined time efficiency in wheelchair locomotive activities among four different wheelchairs propelled by elders with arms and/or legs. Sixteen elder manual wheelchair users propelled her/his own wheelchair and three wheelchairs (the main drive-axis wheels positioning in front, middle, and rear, respectively) in the test of seven wheelchair locomotive activities of daily living. A Mixed-Model ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (p < .05) were employed to determine the time efficiency among four wheelchairs and three groups. The results demonstrated better time efficiency resulted from propelling the mid drive-axis and/or rear drive-axis wheelchairs; using arms and legs simultaneously propelling wheelchairs was more time efficient than using the arms or legs only in the selected locomotive activities.
Yong “Tai” Wang, Li-Shan Chang, and Weerawat Limroongreungrat are with the Physical Therapy Department at Georgia State University in Atlanta, GA. E-mail: email@example.com. Randy Bernard, Clint Cope, and Stephen Sprigle are with the Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access at Georgia Institute of Technology.