Children’s Beliefs Toward Cooperative Playing With Peers With Disabilities in Physical Education

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were assessed for content validity. Participants provided more affective (68%) than instrumental (32%) responses for favorable behavioral beliefs and more instrumental (76%) than affective (24%) responses for unfavorable beliefs. Peer social pressure was prevalent in favorable (69%) and unfavorable (99%) responses. Social pressure significantly varied across five grades, χ2(4, N = 448) = 40.51, p < .01. Participants responded many factors in the class would positively (76%) or negatively (89%) influence the behavior.

Iva Obrusnikova is with the Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences at the University of Delaware in Newark. Martin Block is with the Kinesiology Program at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Suzanna Dillon is with the Kinesiology, Sport, and Health Studies Department at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan.

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