Creation and Validation of the Self-Efficacy Instrument for Physical Education Teacher Education Majors Toward Inclusion

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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The purpose was to validate a self-efficacy (SE) instrument toward including students with disability in physical education (PE). Three scales referring to intellectual disabilities (ID), physical disabilities (PD), or visual impairments (VI) were administered to 486 physical education teacher education (PETE) majors. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA, respectively) were conducted. After deleting items that did not meet inclusion criteria, EFA item loadings ranged from 0.53 to 0.91, and Cronbach’s alpha reliability was high (for ID = .86, PD = .90, and VI = .92). CFA showed that the ID scale demonstrated good goodness-of-fit, whereas in the PD and in the VI scales demonstrated moderate fit. Thus, the content and construct validity of the instrument was supported.

Martin Block is with the Kinesiology Program at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Yeshayahu Hutzler is with the Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at the Wingate Institute, Israel. Sharon Barak is with the Edmond and Lily Safra Children’s Hospital, the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel. Aija Klavina is with the Latvian Sports Academy in Latvia.