Balance and Coordination Proficiency of Age-Matched Male and Female Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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Male youth (8–18 years) with intellectual disability (ID) demonstrate motor proficiency below age-related competence capacities for typically developing youth. Whether below-criteria motor proficiency also exists for females with ID is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-specific differences exist in motor proficiency for youth with ID. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to measure motor proficiency: six items for upper limb coordination, seven items for balance, and six items for bilateral coordination. One hundred and seventy-two (172) males and 85 females with ID but without Down syndrome were divided into five age groups for comparative purposes: 8–10, 11–12, 13–14, 15–16, and 17–21 years. Males scored sufficiently higher than females to suggest that sex data should not be combined to established Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency standards for upper limb coordination, balance, and bilateral coordination subtests.

Pitetti is with the Dept. of Physical Therapy, College of Health Professions, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS. Miller is with the Dept. of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS. Loovis is with the Dept. of Health and Human Performance, College of Education and Human Services, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH.

Address author correspondence to Ken Pitetti at ken.pitetti@wichita.edu.
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