FAST Club: The Impact of a Physical Activity Intervention on Executive Function in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $63.00

1 year subscription

USD $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $119.00

2 year subscription

USD $156.00

Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to have positive effects on cognitive function, particularly executive function (EF) skills. Animal models suggest PA may be effective in ameliorating some of the neuropsychological effects of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), but this approach has not been extended to humans. The purpose of this study was to develop a PA program, FAST Club, for children with FASD and to evaluate its effect on a measure of EF. Using a wait-list control design, 30 children age 7–14 yr participated in FAST Club for 2 × 1.5-hr sessions/week for 8 weeks. EF was assessed using the Children’s Color Trails Test. Significant improvements in T scores on the Children’s Color Trails Test were seen immediately postprogram, and this improvement was sustained at 3 months postprogram. These findings provide evidence to support the use of PA as a means to improve EF in children with FASD.

Pritchard Orr, Keiver, and Bertram are with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Fraser Valley, Chilliwack, BC, Canada. Clarren is with the Dept. of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, and is now retired.

Pritchard Orr (Alison.pritchardorr@ufv.ca) is corresponding author.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Article Sections
References
  • AstleyS.J. & ClarrenS.K. (2000). Diagnosing the full spectrum of fetal alcohol exposed individuals: Introducing the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Alcohol 35400410. doi:10.1093/alcalc/35.4.400

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarenbergJ.BerseT. & DutkeS. (2011). Executive functions in learning processes: Do they benefit from physical activity? Educational Research Review 6(3) 208222. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2011.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BC Ministry of Children and Family Development. (2017). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/

    • Export Citation
  • BC Ministry of Education. (2017). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Retrieved from https://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/fas/

    • Export Citation
  • BestJ.R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review 30331351. PubMed ID: 21818169 doi:10.1016/j.dr.2010.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Björck-ÅkessonE.WilderJ.GranlundM.PlessM.SimeonssonR.AdolfssonM. . . . LillvistA. (2010). The international classification of functioning, disability and health and the version for children and youth as a tool in child habilitation/early childhood intervention—feasibility and usefulness as a common language and frame of reference for practice. Disability & Rehabilitation 32(1) 125138. PubMed ID: 20843264 doi:10.3109/09638288.2010.516787

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BruininksR.H. & BruininksB.D. (2005). Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2) (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChackoA.FeirsenN.BedardA.C.MarksD.UdermanJ.Z. & ChimiklisA. (2013). Cogmed working memory training for youth with ADHD: A closer examination of efficacy utilizing evidence-based criteria. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 42(6) 769783. PubMed ID: 23668397 doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.787622

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChaddockL.EricksonK.I.PrakashR.S.KimJ.S.VossM.W.VanPatterM. . . . KramerA.F. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research 1358172183. PubMed ID: 20735996 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.08.049

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChaddockL.EricksonK.I.PrakashR.S.VanPatterM.VossM.W.PontifexM.B. & KramerA.F. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience 32(3) 249256. PubMed ID: 20693803 doi:10.1159/000316648

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangY.HungC.HuangC.HatfieldB.D. & HungT. (2014). Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: A preliminary study. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 29(3) 217223. doi:10.1093/arclin/acu003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChasnoffI.J.WellsA.M.TelfordE.SchmidtC. & MesserG. (2010). Neurodevelopmental functioning in children with FAS, pFAS, and ARND. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 31(3) 192201. PubMed ID: 20375733 doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d5a4e2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChristieB.R.EadieB.KannangaraT.RobillardJ.ShinJ. & TitternessA. (2008). Exercising our brains: How physical activity impacts synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Neuromolecular Medicine 10(2) 4758. PubMed ID: 18535925 doi:10.1007/s12017-008-8033-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChristieB.R.SwannS.E.FoxC.J.FrocD.LieblichS.E.RedilaV. & WebberA. (2005). Voluntary exercise rescues deficits in spatial memory and long-term potentiation in prenatal ethanol-exposed male rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 21(6) 17191726. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04004.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChudleyA.E.ConryJ.CookJ.L.LoockC.RosalesT. & LeBlancN. (2005). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal Supplement 172(5) S1S21. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1040302

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CrovaC.StruzzolinoI.MarchettiR.MasciI.VannozziG.ForteR. & PesceC. (2014). Cognitively challenging physical activity benefits executive function in overweight children. Journal of Sports Sciences 32(3) 201211. PubMed ID: 24015968 doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.828849

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DavisC.L.TomporowskiP.D.BoyleC.A.WallerJ.L.MillerP.H.NaglieriJ.A. & GregoskiM. (2007). Effects of aerobic exercise on overweight children’s cognitive functioning: A randomized controlled trial. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 78(5) 510519. PubMed ID: 18274222 doi:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599450

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DavisC.L.TomporowskiP.D.McDowellJ.E.AustinB.P.MillerP.H.YanasakN.E. . . . NaglieriJ.A. (2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized, controlled trial. Health Psychology 30(1) 9198. PubMed ID: 21299297 doi:10.1037/a0021766

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiamondA. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology 64(1) 135168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

  • DiamondA. & LingD.S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 18(Flux Congress 2014) 3448. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.11.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DonnellyJ.E.HillmanC.H.CastelliD.EtnierJ.L.LeeS.TomporowskiP. . . . Szabo-ReedA.N. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: A systematic review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48(6) 11971222. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EricksonK.I.GildengersA.G. & ButtersM.A. (2013). Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 15(1) 99108. PubMed ID: 23576893

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GapinJ. & EtnierJ.L. (2010). The relationship between physical activity and executive function performance in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 32(6) 753763. doi:10.1123/jsep.32.6.753

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HartmanE.SmithJ.HouwenS. & VisscherC. (2017). Skill-related physical fitness versus aerobic fitness as a predictor of executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Research in Developmental Disabilities 64111. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2017.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillmanC.H. & BigganJ.R. (2017). A review of childhood physical activity, brain, and cognition: Perspectives on the future. Pediatric Exercise Science 29(2) 170176. PubMed ID: 27615274 doi:10.1123/pes.2016-0125.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillmanC.H.PontifexM.B.CastelliD.M.KhanN.A.RaineL.B.ScudderM.R. & KamijoK. (2014). Effects of the FITKids randomized controlled trial on executive control and brain function. Pediatrics 134(4) e1063e1071. PubMed ID: 25266425 doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3219

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KableJ.A.ColesC.D. & TaddeoE. (2007). Socio-cognitive habilitation using the math interactive learning experience program for alcohol affected children. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31(8) 14251434. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00431.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KamijoK.PontifexM.B.O’LearyK.C.ScudderM.R.WuC.CastelliD.M. & HillmanC.H. (2011). The effects of an afterschool physical activity program on working memory in preadolescent children. Developmental Science 14(5) 10461058. PubMed ID: 21884320 doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01054.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhanN.A. & HillmanC.H. (2014). The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science 26(2) 138146. PubMed ID: 24722921 doi:10.1123/pes.2013-0125

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlintsovaA.Y.HamiltonG.F. & BoschenK.E. (2013). Long-term consequences of developmental alcohol exposure on brain structure and function: Therapeutic benefits of physical activity. Brain Sciences (2076-3425) 3(1) 138. doi:10.3390/brainsci3010001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KodituwakkuP.W. (2009). Neurocognitive profile in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 15(3) 218224. PubMed ID: 19731385 doi:10.1002/ddrr.73

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KodituwakkuP.W. & KodituwakkuE.L. (2011). From research to practice: An integrative framework for the development of interventions for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology Review 21(2) 204223. PubMed ID: 21544706 doi:10.1007/s11065-011-9170-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LlorenteA.M.WilliamsJ.SatzP. & D’EliaL. (2003). Children’s color trails test 1 & 2 manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MandichA.PolatajkoH. & RodgerS. (2003). Rites of passage: Understanding participation of children with developmental coordination disorder. Human Movement Science 22(4) 583595. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2003.09.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MasleyS.RoetzheimR. & GualtieriT. (2009). Aerobic exercise enhances cognitive flexibility. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 16(2) 186193. doi:10.1007/s10880-009-9159-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MattsonS.N.CrockerN. & NguyenT.T. (2011). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Neuropsychological and behavioral features. Neuropsychology Review 21(2) 81101. PubMed ID: 21503685 doi:10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PaleyB. & O’ConnorM.J. (2009). Behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Research and Health34(1) 6475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PanC.ChuC.TsaiC.SungM.HuangC. & MaW. (2017). The impacts of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism: The International Journal of Research & Practice 21(2) 190202. PubMed ID: 27656845 doi:10.1177/1362361316633562

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PetrenkoC.L. & AltoM.E. (2017). Interventions in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: An international perspective. European Journal of Medical Genetics 60(Special issue on Environmental Teratogens) 7991. doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PetrenkoC.L.TahirN.MahoneyE. & ChinN. (2014). Prevention of secondary conditions in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Identification of systems-level barriers. Maternal & Child Health Journal 18(6) 14961505. PubMed ID: 24178158 doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1390-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PontifexM.B.FineJ.G.da CruzK.ParksA.C. & SmithA.L. (2014). The role of physical activity in reducing barriers to learning in children with developmental disorders. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 79(4) 93118. PubMed ID: 25387417 doi:10.1111/mono.12132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PopovaS.LangeS.ProbstC.ParunashviliN. & RehmJ. (2017). Prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States. European Journal of Medical Genetics 60(1) 3248. PubMed ID: 27638329 doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.09.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PortneyL.G. & WatkinsM.P. (2000). Foundations of clinical research. Applications to practice (2nd ed.768 pp.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RasmussenC. (2005). Executive functioning and working memory in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 29(8) 13591367. doi:10.1097/01.alc.0000175040.91007.d0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RasmussenC. & BisanzJ. (2009). Executive functioning in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Profiles and age-related differences. Child Neuropsychology 15(3) 201215. PubMed ID: 18825524 doi:10.1080/09297040802385400

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchmidtM.JägerK.EggerF.RoebersC.M. & ConzelmannA. (2015). Cognitively engaging chronic physical activity, but not aerobic exercise, affects executive functions in primary school children: A Group-Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 37(6) 575591. PubMed ID: 26866766 doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0069

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithA.L.HozaB.LinneaK.McQuadeJ.D.TombM.VaughnA.J. . . . HookH. (2013). Pilot physical activity intervention reduces severity of ADHD symptoms in young children. Journal of Attention Disorders 17(1) 7082. PubMed ID: 21868587 doi:10.1177/1087054711417395

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SongM.LausengD.LeeS.NordstromM. & KatchV. (2016). Enhanced physical activity improves selected outcomes in children with ADHD: Systematic review. Western Journal of Nursing Research 38(9) 11551184. PubMed ID: 27226208 doi:10.1177/0193945916649954

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StreissguthA.BooksteinF.BarrH.SampsonP.O’MalleyK. & YoungJ. (2004). Risk factors for adverse life outcomes in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 25(4) 228238. doi:10.1097/00004703-200408000-00002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThomasJ.D.SatherT.M. & WhineryL.A. (2008). Voluntary exercise influences behavioral development in rats exposed to alcohol during the neonatal brain growth spurt. Behavioral Neuroscience 122(6) 12641273. PubMed ID: 19045946 doi:10.1037/a0013271

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TomporowskiP.D.McCullickB.PendletonD.M. & PesceC. (2015). Exercise and children’s cognition: The role of exercise characteristics and a place for metacognition. Journal of Sport and Health Science 4(1) 4755. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der FelsI.M.Te WierikeS.C.HartmanE.Elferink-GemserM.T.SmithJ. & VisscherC. (2015). The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4–16 year old typically developing children: A systematic review. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 18(6) 697703. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.09.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der NietA.G.SmithJ.OosterlaanJ.ScherderE.A.HartmanE. & VisscherC. (2016). Effects of a cognitively demanding aerobic intervention during recess on children’s physical fitness and executive functioning. Pediatric Exercise Science 28(1) 6470. PubMed ID: 26252883 doi:10.1123/pes.2015-0084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VerretC.GuayM.BerthiaumeC.GardinerP. & BéliveauL. (2012). A physical activity program improves behavior and cognitive functions in children with ADHD: An exploratory study. Journal of Attention Disorders 16(1) 7180. doi:10.1177/1087054710379735

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZiereisS. & JansenP. (2015). Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities 38181191. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 155 155 43
Full Text Views 14 14 4
PDF Downloads 5 5 1
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar