Locomotor Adaptations During RaceRunning in People With Neurological Motor Disorders

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $63.00

1 year subscription

USD $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $119.00

2 year subscription

USD $156.00

The aim of this study was to examine strategies to absorb impact shock during RaceRunning in participants with neurological motor disorders. For this purpose, 8 RaceRunning athletes (4 male and 4 female) voluntarily took part in the study. Each participant performed a series of 100-m sprints with a RaceRunning bike. Acceleration of the tibia and head was measured with 2 inertial measurement units and used to calculate foot-impact shock measures. Results showed that RaceRunning pattern was characterized by a lack of impact peak in foot–ground contact time and the existence of an active peak after foot contact. Due to the ergonomic properties of the RaceRunning bike, shock is attenuated throughout the stance phase. In conclusion, the results revealed that RaceRunning athletes with neurological motor disorders are capable of absorbing impact shock during assisted RaceRunning using a strategy that mimics runners without disabilities.

Shafizadeh is with the Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, and Shafizadeh and Davids, the Centre for Sport Engineering Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Theis is with the School of Sport and Exercise, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom.

Shafizadeh (m.shafizadeh@shu.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Article Sections
References
  • BobbertM.F.SchamhardtH.C. & NiggB.M. (1991). Calculation of vertical ground reaction force estimates during running from positional data. Journal of Biomechanics 2410951105. PubMed ID: 1769975 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(91)90002-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BolsterE.A.M.DallmeijerA.J.de WolfS.VersteegtM. & van SchieP.E.M. (2017). Reliability and construct validity of the 6-Minute Racerunner Test in children and youth with cerebral palsy levels III and IV. Physical & Occupational Therapy Pediatrics 37210221. doi:10.1080/01942638.2016.1185502

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoyerK.A. & NiggB.M. (2007). Changes in muscle activity in response to different impact forces affect soft tissue compartment mechanical properties. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 129594602. PubMed ID: 17655481 doi:10.1115/1.2746384

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CampbellM. (2004). Acquired brain injury: Trauma and pathology. In M. Stokes (Ed.) Physical management in neurological rehabilitation (pp. 103124). London, UK: Elsevier Mosby.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoatesJ. & VickermanP. (2010). Empowering children with special educational needs to speak up: Experiences of inclusive physical education. Disability and Rehabilitation 3215171526. PubMed ID: 20568986 doi:10.3109/09638288.2010.497037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenM.LahatE.BistritzerT.LivneA.HeymanE. & RachmielM. (2009). Evidence-based review of bone strength in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Journal of Child Neurology 24959967. PubMed ID: 19321458 doi:10.1177/0883073809332401

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DavidsK.ButtonC. & BennetS. (2008). Dynamics of skill acquisition a constrained-led approach. Chicago, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • DerrickT.R.HamillJ. & GrahamC.E. (1998). Energy absorption of impacts during running at various stride lengths. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise 30128135. PubMed ID: 9475654 doi:10.1097/00005768-199801000-00018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsW.B.DerrickT.R. & HamillJ. (2012). Musculoskeletal attenuation of impact shock in response to knee angle manipulation. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 28502510. PubMed ID: 22695111 doi:10.1123/jab.28.5.502

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FrederickE.C. (1986). Kinematically mediated effects of sport shoe design: A review. Journal of Sports Sciences 4169184. PubMed ID: 3586110 doi:10.1080/02640418608732116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrahamH.K.HarveyA.RoddaJ.NattrassG.R. & PirpirisM. (2004). The Functional Mobility Scale (FMS). Journal of Paediatrics Orthopaedics 24514520. doi:10.1097/01241398-200409000-00011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GriffithsM. & CleggM. (1988). Cerebral palsy: Problems and practice. London, UK: Souvenir Press.

  • GruberA.H.BoyerK.A.DerrickT.R. & HamillJ. (2014). Impact shock frequency components and attenuation in rearfoot and forefoot running. Journal of Sport and Health Sciences 3113121. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoltK.G.ObusekJ.P. & FonsecaS.T. (1996). Constraints on disordered locomotion: A dynamical systems perspective on spastic cerebral palsy. Human Movement Science 15177202. doi:10.1016/0167-9457(95)00043-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KiuppisF. (2018). Inclusion in sport: Disability and participation. Sport Society 21421. doi:10.1080/17430437.2016.1225882

  • LaughtonC.A.McClay DavisI. & HamillJ. (2003). Effect of strike pattern and orthotic intervention on tibial shock during running. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 19153168. doi:10.1123/jab.19.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDonaldB.K.CockerellO.C.SanderJ.W.A. & ShorvonS.D. (2000). The incidence and lifetime prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study in the UK. Brain 123665676. PubMed ID: 10733998 doi:10.1093/brain/123.4.665

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGrathD.GreeneB.R.O’DonovanK.J.& CaulfieldB. (2012). Gyroscope-based assessment of temporal gait parameters during treadmill walking and running. Sports Engineering 15207213. doi:10.1007/s12283-012-0093-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MercerJ.A.VanceJ.HreljacA. & HamillJ. (2002). Relationship between shock attenuation and stride length during running at different velocities. European Journal of Applied Physiology 87403408. PubMed ID: 12172880 doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0646-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MizrahiJ.VerbitskyO. & IsakovE. (2000a). Fatigue-related loading imbalance on the shank in running: A possible factor in stress fracture. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28463469. doi:10.1114/1.284

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MizrahiJ.VerbitskyO. & IsakovE. (2000b). Shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill and level running. Clinical Biomechanics 151520. doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(99)00033-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlneyS.J.MacPhailH.A. & HeddenD.M. (1990). Work and power in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy 70431438. PubMed ID: 2356219 doi:10.1093/ptj/70.7.431

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RadinE.L. (1972). The physiology and degeneration of joints. Seminar Arthritis Rheumatism 2245257. doi:10.1016/0049-0172(72)90010-8

  • RadinE.L. & PaulI.L. (1970). Does cartilage compliance reduce skeletal impact loads? The relative force attenuating properties of articular cartilage, synovial fluid, periarticular soft tissues and bone. Arthritis & Rheumatology 13139144. doi:10.1002/art.1780130206

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RyanJ.M.CrowleyV.E.HenseyO.BroderickJ.M.McGaheyA. & GormleyJ. (2014). Habitual physical activity and cardio metabolic risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disability 3519952002. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.051

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShortenM.R. & WinslowD.S. (1992). Spectral analysis of impact shock during running. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 8288304. doi:10.1123/ijsb.8.4.288

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmeathersJ.E. (1989). Transient vibrations caused by heel strike. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 203181186. PubMed ID: 2701953 doi:10.1243/PIME_PROC_1989_203_036_01

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sport England. (2013). Active people survey. London, UK: Author.

  • Van der LindenM.JahedS.TennantN. & VerheulM.H.G. (2018). The influence of lower limb impairments on RaceRunning performance in athletes with hypertonia, ataxia or athetosis. Gait & Posture 61362367. PubMed ID: 29433091 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.02.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WileyM.E. & DamianoD.L. (1998). Lower-extremity strength profiles in spastic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 40100107. PubMed ID: 9489498 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1998.tb15369.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Para Athletics. (2016). RaceRunning. Enhancing athletes with high support needs participation in world para athletes. CPISRA. Retrived from www.cpisra.org

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 259 259 48
Full Text Views 43 43 6
PDF Downloads 19 19 1
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar