Exploring Stereotypes of Athletes With a Disability: A Behaviors From Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes Map Comparison

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

Identifying as a regular exerciser has been found to effectively alter stereotypes related to warmth and competence for adults with a physical disability; however, it remains unclear how sport participation can influence this trend. Therefore, this study aimed to examine warmth and competence perceptions of adults with a physical disability portrayed as elite and nonelite athletes relative to other athletic and nonathletic subgroups of adults with and without a physical disability in the context of the stereotype content model. Using survey data from able-bodied participants (N = 302), cluster analyses were applied to a behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes map for displaying the intersection of warmth and competence perceptions. The results demonstrated that adults with a physical disability who are described as elite athletes (i.e., Paralympians) are clustered with high warmth and high competence, similar to their able-bodied athletic counterparts (i.e., Olympians). The findings suggest that perceiving athletic and elite sport statuses for adults with a physical disability may counter the stereotypes commonly applied to this group.

Stone and Latimer-Cheung are with the School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, and MacDonald, the Dept. of Psychology, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Sweet is with the Dept. of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Perrier is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Martin Ginis is with the Dept. of Medicine, School of Health & Exercise Sciences, International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Stone (rachaelch.stone@gmail.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Arbour, K.P., Latimer, A.E., Ginis, K.A.M., & Jung, M.E. (2007). Moving beyond the stigma: The impression formation benefits of exercise for individuals with a physical disability. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 24(2), 144–159. PubMed ID: 17916914 doi:10.1123/apaq.24.2.144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blashfield, R.K., & Aldenderfer, M.S. (1988). The methods and problems of cluster analysis. In J.R. Nesselroade& R.B. Cattell (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 447–473). New York, NY: Springer US.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blauwet, C., & Willick, S.E. (2012). The Paralympic movement: Using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities. PM&R, 4(11), 851–856. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.08.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, F.K. (2009). Contours of ableism: The production of disability and abledness. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Caprariello, P.A., Cuddy, A.J., & Fiske, S.T. (2009). Social structure shapes cultural stereotypes and emotions: A causal test of the stereotype content model. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12(2), 147–155. doi:10.1177/1368430208101053

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clément-Guillotin, C., Rohmer, O., Forestier, C., Guillotin, P., Deshayes, M., & d’Arripe-Longueville, F. (2018). Implicit and explicit stereotype content associated with people with physical disability: Does sport change anything? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38(1), 192–201. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.06.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coates, J., & Vickerman, P.B. (2016). Paralympic legacy: Exploring the impact of the games on the perceptions of young people with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 33(4), 338–357. PubMed ID: 27874305 doi:10.1123/APAQ.2014-0237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuddy, A.J., Fiske, S.T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631–648. PubMed ID: 17469949 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuddy, A.J., Fiske, S.T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40(2), 61–149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuddy, A.J., Fiske, S.T., Kwan, V.S., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., & Leyens, J.P., … Ziegler, R. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 1–33. doi:10.1348/014466608X314935

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dieffenbach, K.D., & Statler, T.A. (2012). More similar than different: The psychological environment of Paralympic sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3(2), 109–118. doi:10.1080/21520704.2012.683322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dovidio, J.F., & Fiske, S.T. (2012). Under the radar: How unexamined biases in decision-making processes in clinical interactions can contribute to health care disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 945–952. PubMed ID: 22420809 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300601

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drouin, B., Varga, H., & Gammage, K.L. (2008). The positive exerciser stereotype: The role of gender stereotype of the activity. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 13(3), 143–156. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9861.2008.00032.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrara, K., Burns, J., & Mills, H. (2015). Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(1), 19–33. PubMed ID: 25544718 doi:10.1123/apaq.2014-0136

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fiske, S.T. (2012). Warmth and competence: Stereotype content issues for clinicians and researchers. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 53(1), 14–20. PubMed ID: 24155504 doi:10.1037/a0026054

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902. PubMed ID: 12051578 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gainforth, H.L., O’Malley, D., & Mountenay, T., & Latimer-Cheung, A. (2013). Independence and physical activity status moderate stereotypes toward people with a physical disability. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(3), 244–257.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). Using SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Gervais, S.J. (2011). A social psychological perspective of disability prejudice. In R. Wiener & S. Willborn (Eds.), Disability and aging discrimination (pp. 249–262). New York, NY: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Hebl, M.R., & Kleck, R.E. (2000). The social consequences of physical disability. In T.F. Heatherton, R.E. Kleck, M.R. Hebl, & J.G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 419–439). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huo, Y.J., Binning, K.R., & Molina, L.E. (2010). Testing an integrative model of respect: Implications for social engagement and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(2), 200–212. PubMed ID: 20032268 doi:10.1177/0146167209356787

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Paralympic Committee. (2015). Strategic plan 2015 to 2018: Strategic outlook for the International Paralympic Committee. Bonn, Germany: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ketchen, D.J., Jr., & Shook, C.L. (1996). The application of cluster analysis in strategic management research: An analysis and critique. Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 441–458. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199606)17:6<441::AID-SMJ819>3.0.CO;2-G

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khan, K.M., Thompson, A.M., Blair, S.N., Sallis, J.F., Powell, K.E., Bull, F.C., & Bauman, A.E. (2012). Sport and exercise as contributors to the health of nations. The Lancet, 380(9836), 59–64. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60865-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kittson, K., Gainforth, H.L., Edwards, J., Bolkowy, R., & Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2013). The effect of video observation on warmth and competence ratings of individuals with a disability. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(6), 847–851. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunda, Z., & Oleson, K.C. (1995). Maintaining stereotypes in the face of disconfirmation: Constructing grounds for subtyping deviants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(4), 565–579. PubMed ID: 7738766 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.565

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindwall, M., & Martin Ginis, K.A. (2006). Moving towards a favorable image: The self‐presentational benefits of exercise and physical activity. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47(3), 209–217. PubMed ID: 16696845 doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00509.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyons, B.J., Martinez, L.R., Ruggs, E.N., Hebl, M.R., Ryan, A.M., O’Brien, K.R., & Roebuck, A. (2018). To say or not to say: Different strategies of acknowledging a visible disability. Journal of Management, 44(5), 1980–2007. doi:10.1177/0149206316638160

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, K.A., Sinden, A.R., & Fleming, J.C. (2000). Inactivity may be hazardous to your image: The effects of exercise participation on impression formation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22(4), 283–291. doi:10.1123/jsep.22.4.283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Ginis, K.A., Latimer, A.E., & Jung, M.E. (2003). No pain no gain? Examining the generalizability of the exerciser stereotype to moderately active and excessively active targets. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(3), 283–290. doi:10.2224/sbp.2003.31.3.283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niemann, Y.F., Jennings, L., Rozelle, R.M., Baxter, J.C., & Sullivan, E. (1994). Use of free responses and cluster analysis to determine stereotypes of eight groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(4), 379–390. doi:10.1177/0146167294204005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nowicki, E.A. (2006). A cross‐sectional multivariate analysis of children’s attitudes towards disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(5), 335–348. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00781.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nowicki, E.A., & Sandieson, R. (2002). A meta-analysis of school-age children’s attitudes towards persons with physical or intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 49(3), 243–265. doi:10.1080/1034912022000007270

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oldmeadow, J., & Fiske, S.T. (2007). System‐justifying ideologies moderate status- competence stereotypes: Roles for belief in a just world and social dominance orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(6), 1135–1148. doi:10.1002/ejsp.428

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pack, S., Kelly, S., & Arvinen-Barrow, M. (2017). “I think I became a swimmer rather than just someone with a disability swimming up and down:” Paralympic athletes perceptions of self and identity development. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(20), 2063–2070. PubMed ID: 27673551 doi:10.1080/09638288.2016.1217074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paradis, K.F., Misener, L.J., McPherson, G., McGillivray, D., & Legg, D. (2017). Examining the impact of integrated and non-integrated parasport events on volunteer attitudes towards disability. Sport in Society, 20(11), 1724–1744. doi:10.1080/17430437.2017.1329826

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Punj, G., & Stewart, D.W. (1983). Cluster analysis in marketing research: Review and suggestions for application. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(2), 134–148. doi:10.1177/002224378302000204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scior, K. (2011). Public awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2164–2182. PubMed ID: 21798712 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.07.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, C.F., & Howe, P.D. (2012). The (in) validity of supercrip representation of Paralympian athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 36(2), 174–194. doi:10.1177/0193723511433865

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starkes, J.L., & Ericsson, K.A. (2003). Expert performance in sports: Advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taleporos, G., & McCabe, M.P. (2002). Body image and physical disability: Personal perspectives. Social Science & Medicine, 54(6), 971–980. PubMed ID: 11996029 doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00069-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trachtenberg, L.J., Perrier, M.J., Gainforth, H.L., Minnes, P., & Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2012). Challenging stereotypes of individuals with a physical disability: The impact of Paralympic athletes in television. In A.A. Martin& J.E. Jones (Eds.), Spinal cord injuries: Causes, risk factors and management (pp. 263–275). Hauppauge, NY: Nova.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyrrell, A.C., Hetz, S.P., Barg, C.J., & Latimer, A.E. (2010). Exercise as stigma management for individuals with onset-controllable and onset-uncontrollable spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55(4), 383–390. PubMed ID: 21171797 doi:10.1037/a0021539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L. (2012). The head and shoulders psychology of success project: An examination of perceptions of Olympic athletes. North American Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 123–138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D.S. (2011). Cluster analysis. In D.S. Wilks (Ed.), International geophysics (pp. 603–616). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

  • World Health Organization. (2011). World report on disability. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report/en/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 453 453 85
Full Text Views 47 47 0
PDF Downloads 34 34 0