Early Movement Matters: Interplay of Physical Activity and Motor Skill Development in Infants With Down Syndrome

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 Michigan State University
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

This longitudinal study investigated monthly motor development and physical activity (PA) of infants with and without Down syndrome. Gross and fine motor skills (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III) and PA (accelerometer) were assessed in 35 infants at eight time points during infancy. A multivariate mixed model identified time points when motor scores diverged between the groups. In infants with Down syndrome, bivariate correlations between monthly PA and motor changes were calculated, and multivariate analysis of variance probed the influence of early PA on motor-skill timing. Results indicate that differences in gross and fine motor skills first emerge at 2 and 4 months, respectively. In infants with Down syndrome, gross motor and PA changes between 4 and 6 months were positively correlated. Infants more active than the mean at 2 or 3 months achieved several prone and sitting skills earlier. These results highlight the adaptability of early infancy and the importance of early intervention.

The authors are with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Felzer-Kim (felzerki@msu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Anderson, D.I., Campos, J.J., Witherington, D.C., Dahl, A., Rivera, M., He, M., . . . Barbu-Roth, M. (2013). The role of locomotion in psychological development. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 440. PubMed ID: 23888146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angulo-Barroso, R., Burghardt, A.R., Lloyd, M., & Ulrich, D.A. (2008). Physical activity in infants with Down syndrome receiving a treadmill intervention. Infant Behavior and Development, 31(2), 255269. PubMed ID: 18045691 doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2007.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauer, D.J., & Curran, P.J. (2005). Probing interactions in fixed and multilevel regression: Inferential and graphical techniques. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40(3), 373400. PubMed ID: 26794689 doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr4003_5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley Scales of Infant and toddler Development: Bayley-III. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Psychological Corporation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, R., & Lange, S. (2001). Adjusting for multiple testing—When and how? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 54(4), 343349. PubMed ID: 11297884 doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00314-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campos, J.J., Anderson, D.I., Barbu-Roth, M.A., Hubbard, E.M., Hertenstein, M.J., & Witherington, D. (2000). Travel broadens the mind. Infancy, 1(2), 149219. doi:10.1207/S15327078IN0102_1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobo-Lewis, A.B., Oller, D.K., Lynch, M.P., & Levine, S.L. (1996). Relations of motor and vocal milestones in typically developing infants and infants with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation: AJMR, 100(5), 456467. PubMed ID: 8852298

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Corbetta, D., & Thelen, E. (1996). The developmental origins of bimanual coordination: A dynamic perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 22(2), 502522. PubMed ID: 8934856 doi:10.1037/0096-1523.22.2.502

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cowie, V.A. (1970). A study of the early development of Mongols. Oxford, United Kingdom: Published for the Institute for Research into Mental Retardation by Pergamon Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudek-Shriber, L., & Zelazny, S. (2007). The effects of prone positioning on the quality and acquisition of developmental milestones in four-month-old infants. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 19(1), 4855. doi:10.1097/01.pep.0000234963.72945.b1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edwards, N.M., Khoury, P.R., Kalkwarf, H.J., Woo, J.G., Claytor, R.P., & Daniels, S.R. (2013). Tracking of accelerometer-measured physical activity in early childhood. Pediatric Exercise Science, 25(3), 487501. PubMed ID: 23877325 doi:10.1123/pes.25.3.487

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esposito, P.E., MacDonald, M., Hornyak, J.E., & Ulrich, D.A. (2012). Physical activity patterns of youth with Down syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(2), 109119. doi:10.1352/1934-9556-50.2.109

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishler, K., Share, J., & Koch, R. (1964). Adaptation of Gesell developmental scales for evaluation of development in children with Down’s syndrome (Mongolism). American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 68, 642646. PubMed ID: 14131888

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Government Accountability Office. (2010). Children with Down syndrome: Families are more likely to receive resources at time of diagnosis than in early childhood (GAO-11-57). Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-57

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, J.A., Whitney, P.G., & Potegal, M. (2011). Screaming, yelling, whining, and crying: Categorical and intensity differences in vocal expressions of anger and sadness in children’s tantrums. Emotion, 11(5), 1124. PubMed ID: 21707157 doi:10.1037/a0024173

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harbourne, R.T., & Stergiou, N. (2009). Movement variability and the use of nonlinear tools: Principles to guide physical therapist practice. Physical Therapy, 89(3), 267282. PubMed ID: 19168711 doi:10.2522/ptj.20080130

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hauck, J.L., Zott, G.R., Felzer-Kim, I.T., & Adkins, C.M. (2018). A comparison of low-intensity physical activity, growth, and sleep behavior in 6-month old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 53, 1824. PubMed ID: 30388466 doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2018.09.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henze, N., & Zirkler, B. (1990). A class of invariant consistent tests for multivariate normality. Communications in Statistics—Theory and Methods, 19(10), 35953617. doi:10.1080/03610929008830400

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM Corp. (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 (Version 25). Armonk, NY: Authors.

  • Jobling, A. (1999). Attainment of motor proficiency in school-aged children with Down syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(4), 344361. doi:10.1123/apaq.16.4.344

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ketcheson, L., Hauck, J.L., & Ulrich, D. (2017). The levels of physical activity and motor skills in young children with and without autism spectrum disorder, aged 2–5 years. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 22(4), 414423. doi:10.1177/1362361316683889

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ketcheson, L., Pitchford, E.A., Kwon, H.-J., & Ulrich, D.A. (2017). Physical activity patterns in infants with and without Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 29(3), 200206. doi:10.1097/PEP.0000000000000397

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuo, Y.-L., Liao, H.-F., Chen, P.-C., Hsieh, W.-S., & Hwang, A.-W. (2008). The influence of wakeful prone positioning on motor development during the early life. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 29(5), 367376. PubMed ID: 18766114 doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181856d54

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latash, M., Wood, L., & Ulrich, D. (2008). What is currently known about hypotonia, motor skill development, and physical activity in Down syndrome. Retrieved from https://www.down-syndrome.org/reviews/2074/

    • Export Citation
  • Lauteslager, P.E.M. (1995). Motor development in young children with Down syndrome. Physical and Motor Development in Mental Retardation, 40, 7598. doi:10.1159/000424520

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lauteslager, P.E.M., Vermeer, A., & Helders, P.J.H. (1998). Disturbances in the motor behaviour of children with Down’s syndrome: The need for a theoretical framework. Physiotherapy, 84(1), 513. doi:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)65896-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lobo, M.A., Harbourne, R.T., Dusing, S.C., & McCoy, S.W. (2013). Grounding early intervention: Physical therapy cannot just be about motor skills anymore. Physical Therapy, 93(1), 94103. PubMed ID: 23001524 doi:10.2522/ptj.20120158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malak, R., Kostiukow, A., Krawczyk-Wasielewska, A., Mojs, E., & Samborski, W. (2015). Delays in motor development in children with Down syndrome. Medical Science Monitor, 21, 19041910. doi:10.12659/MSM.893377

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishizawa, Y., Fujita, T., Matsuoka, K., & Nakagawa, H. (2006). Contact pressure distribution features in Down syndrome infants in supine and prone positions, analyzed by photoelastic methods. Pediatrics International, 48(5), 484488. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2006.02258.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., & Myers, N.D. (2016). An introduction to intermediate and advanced statistical analyses for sport and exercise scientists (Vol. 1, pp. 211230). Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pereira, K., Basso, R.P., Lindquist, A.R.R., da Silva, L.G., & Tudella, E. (2013). Infants with Down syndrome: Percentage and age for acquisition of gross motor skills. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(3), 894901. PubMed ID: 23291506 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.11.021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pitchford, E.A., Ketcheson, L.R., Kwon, H.-J., & Ulrich, D.A. (2017). Minimum accelerometer wear time in infants: A generalizability study. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 14(6), 421428. PubMed ID: 28290739 doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0395

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rast, M.M., & Harris, S.R. (1985). Motor control in infants with Down syndrome. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 27(5), 682685. PubMed ID: 2933285 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1985.tb14144.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raudenbush, S.W., & Bryk, A.S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rochat, P., & Goubet, N. (1995). Development of sitting and reaching in 5-to 6-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 18(1), 5368. doi:10.1016/0163-6383(95)90007-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RStudio Team. (2015). RStudio: Integrated development for R (version 1.1.453). Boston, MA: RStudio, Inc.

  • Sainani, K.L. (2009). The problem of multiple testing. PM & R, 1(12), 10981103. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.10.004

  • Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J.-A. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73(2), 445460. PubMed ID: 11949902

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D.W. (1970). A study of the early development of Mongols. American Journal of Human Genetics, 22(5), 601602.

  • Snijders, T.A.B. (2005). Power and sample size in multilevel linear models. Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science, 3, 15701573. doi:10.1002/0470013192.bsa492

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snijders, T.A.B., & Bosker, R.J. (2011). Multilevel analysis (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/multilevel-analysis/book234191

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tapp, S., Anderson, T., & Visootsak, J. (2015). Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with Down syndrome and infantile spasms. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 13(2), 7477. PubMed ID: 31475481 doi:10.1055/s-0035-1556768

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thelen, E., Corbetta, D., & Spencer, J.P. (1996). Development of reaching during the first year: Role of movement speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22(5), 10591076. PubMed ID: 8865616 doi:10.1037/0096-1523.22.5.1059

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudella, E., Pereira, K., Basso, R.P., & Savelsbergh, G.J. (2011). Description of the motor development of 3–12 month old infants with Down syndrome: The influence of the postural body position. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 15141520. PubMed ID: 21367575 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.046

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, D.A., Lloyd, M.C., Tiernan, C.W., Looper, J.E., & Angulo-Barroso, R.M. (2008). Effects of intensity of treadmill training on developmental outcomes and stepping in infants with Down syndrome: A randomized trial. Physical Therapy, 88(1), 114122. PubMed ID: 17940103 doi:10.2522/ptj.20070139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, D.A., Ulrich, B.D., Angulo-Kinzler, R.M., & Yun, J. (2001). Treadmill training of infants with Down syndrome: Evidence-based developmental outcomes. Pediatrics 108(5), e84e84. PubMed ID: 11694668 doi:10.1542/peds.108.5.e84

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wentz, E.E. (2017). Importance of initiating a “tummy time” intervention early in infants with Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 29(1), 6875. doi:10.1097/PEP.0000000000000335

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitt-Glover, M.C., O’Neill, K.L., & Stettler, N. (2006). Physical activity patterns in children with and without Down syndrome. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9(2), 158164. PubMed ID: 16449075 doi:10.1080/13638490500353202

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, H.G., Pfeiffer, K.A., O’Neill, J.R., Dowda, M., McIver, K.L., Brown, W.H., & Pate, R.R. (2008). Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity, 16(6), 14211426. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.214

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Worobey, J. (2014). Physical activity in infancy: Developmental aspects, measurement, and importance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(3), 729S733S. PubMed ID: 24477037 doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.072397

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wrotniak, B.H., Epstein, L.H., Dorn, J.M., Jones, K.E., & Kondilis, V.A. (2006). The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics 118(6), e17581765. PubMed ID: 17142498 doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0742

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yingling, J.M. (1981). Infant speech timing: The temporal aspects of speech praxis toward language. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED212025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yingling, J.M. (1982). Temporal features of infant speech: A description of babbling patterns circumscribed by postural achievement.

  • Zaal, F.T.J.M., & Thelen, E. (2005). The developmental roots of the speed-accuracy trade-off. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(6), 12661273. PubMed ID: 16366788 doi:10.1037/0096-1523.31.6.1266

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 897 897 134
Full Text Views 88 88 4
PDF Downloads 49 49 2