“My Eyes Have Nothing to Do With How My Legs Move”: Individuals With Visual Impairments’ Experiences With Learning to Run

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 Old Dominion University
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

The purpose of this study was to describe the reflections of adults with visual impairments about learning to run during K–12 physical education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and eight adults (age 22–35 years) with visual impairments served as participants. Primary data sources were semistructured, audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective interview notes. Based on a thematic data analysis process, two themes were developed: (a) “I wouldn’t expect anything better from you”: running instruction in physical education and (b) “You look like the guy in the crosswalk signal”: making up for the shortcomings of physical education. The narratives portraying these themes highlight the lack of instruction that took place in physical education, and the fact that no running instruction occurred at all. These findings indicate that professionals working with individuals with visual impairments should use instructional strategies that will allow for maximum access to learning fundamental movement skills such as running.

The authors are with Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

Holland (kholl011@odu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Beamer, J.A., & Yun, J. (2014). Physical educators’ beliefs and self-reported behaviors toward including students with autism spectrum disorder. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31, 362376. doi:10.1123/apaq.2014-0134

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogart, K.R., & Dunn, D.S. (2019). Ableism special issue introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 75(3), 650664. doi:10.1111/josi.12354

  • Bouchard, D., & Tetreault, S. (2000). The motor development of sighted children and children with moderate low vision aged 8–13. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 94, 564573. doi:10.1177/0145482X0009400903

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boylorn, R.M. (2008). Lived experience. In L.M. Given (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (pp. 489490). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bredahl, A.M. (2013). Sitting and watching the others being active: The experienced difficulties in PE when having a disability. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 30, 4058. PubMed ID: 23283025 doi:10.1123/apaq.30.1.40

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conroy, P. (2016). Building background knowledge: Pre-teaching physical education concepts to students with visual impairments. The Journal of Blindness Innovation and Research, 6(2), 18. doi:10.5241/6-80

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Schipper, T., Lieberman, L.J., & Moody, B. (2017). “Kids like me, we go lightly on the head”: Experiences of children with a visual impairment on the physical self-concept. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 35(1), 5568. doi:10.1177/0264619616678651

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzgerald, H. (2005). Still feeling like a spare piece of luggage? Embodied experiences of (dis)ability in physical education and school support. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 4159. doi:10.1080/1740898042000334908

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D.L. (2001). The meaning of help in PE: Perceptions of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 289303. doi:10.1123/apaq.18.3.289

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D.L., & Staples, K. (2005). The meaning of summer camp experiences to youths with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22(2), 160178. doi:10.1123/apaq.22.2.160

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D.L., & Watkinson, E.J. (2000). Inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17, 144160. doi:10.1123/apaq.17.2.144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Kirk, T.N. (2018). Experiences in physical education: Exploring the intersection of visual impairment and maleness. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35, 196213. PubMed ID: 29529866 doi:10.1123/apaq.2017-0132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Sato, T., Zhu, X., & Kirk, T.N. (2019). Paraeducator support in integrated physical education as reflected by adults with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(1), 91108. doi:10.1123/apaq.2018-0063

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Sutherland, S. (2015). Perspectives of students with disabilities toward physical education: A qualitative inquiry review. Quest, 67(3), 255273. doi:10.1080/00336297.2015.1050118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Yessick, A., & Zhu, X. (2018). Females with visual impairment in physical education: Exploring the intersection between disability and gender identities. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(3), 298308. PubMed ID: 29985772 doi:10.1080/02701367.2018.1484067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Zhu, X. (2017). Experiences of individuals with visual impairment in integrated physical education: A retrospective study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(4), 425435. PubMed ID: 28723249 doi:10.1080/02701367.2017.1346781

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Zhu, X. (2018). Body image and physical education: Reflections of individuals with visual impairments. European Physical Education Review, 25(4), 10021016. doi:10.1177/1356336X18789436

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Zhu, X., & Davis, S. (2017). The meaning of physical education and sport among elite athletes with visual impairments. European Physical Education Review, 23(4), 375391. doi:10.1177/1356336X16650122

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Zhu, X., & Holland, K. (2019). Exploring the intersection between disability and overweightness in physical education among females with visual impairments. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(3), 344354. doi:10.1080/02701367.2019.1600652

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Healy, S., Msetfi, R., & Gallagher, S. (2013). “Happy and a bit nervous”: The experiences of children with autism in physical education. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 222228. doi:10.1111/bld.12053

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, S., Ammah, J., Casebolt, K., Lamaster, K., & O’sullivan, M. (2004). High school general physical education teachers’ behaviors and beliefs associated with inclusion. Sport, Education and Society, 9(3), 395419. doi:10.1080/13573320412331302458

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, A. (2010). Using the telephone for narrative interviewing: A research note. Qualitative Research, 10(1), 113121. doi:10.1177/1468794109348686

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004, Pub. L. No. 108-446, Federal Register (2004).

  • International Blind Sports Federation. (2018). IBSA classification rules. Retrieved from http://www.ibsasport.org/documents/files/182-1-IBSA-Classification-rules-2018.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaarsma, E.A., Dekker, R., Koopmans, S.A., Dijkstra, P.U., & Geertzen, J.H.B. (2014). Barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31, 240264. PubMed ID: 25028476 doi:10.1123/apaq.2013-0119

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kincheloe, J.L., & McLaren, P. (2000). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin& Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 279313). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavie, C.J., Lee, D., Sui, X., Arena, R., O’Keefe, J.H., Church, T.S., . . . Blair, S.N. (2015). Effects of running on chronic diseases and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 90(11), 15411552. PubMed ID: 26362561 doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, D., Brellenthin, A.G., Thompson, P.D., Sui, X., Lee, I., & Lavie, C.J. (2017). Running as a key lifestyle medicine for longevity. Cardiovascular Diseases, 60(1), 4555.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L.J. (2002). Fitness for individuals who are visually impaired or deaf blind. RE View Rehabilitation and Education for Blindness and Visual Impairment, 34(1), 13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L.J., & Haibach, P.S. (2016). Gross motor development curriculum for children with visual impairments. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L.J., Haibach-Beach, P.S., Sherwood, J., & Trad, A. (2019). “We now fly”: Perspectives of adults who are blind with guide dogs trained for running. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 37(3), 213226.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L.J., Ponchillia, P.E., & Ponchillia, S.V. (2012). Physical education and sports for people with visual impairments and deafblindness. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nezlek, J.B., Cypryariska, M., Cypryanski, P., Chiebosz, K., Jenczylik, K., Sztachanska, J., & Zalewska, A.M. (2018). Within-person relationships between recreational running and psychological well-being. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 40, 146152. PubMed ID: 30008243 doi:10.1123/jsep.2017-0244

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paechter, C. (2012). Researching sensitive issues online: Implications of a hybrid insider/outsider position in a retrospective ethnographic study. Qualitative Researcher, 13(1), 7186. doi:10.1177/1468794112446107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ponchillia, P., Strause, B., & Ponchillia, S. (2002). Athletes with visual impairment: Attributes and sport participation. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(4), 267272. doi:10.1177/0145482X0209600408

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Protheroe, C.L., De Souza, A.M., Harris, K.C., Claydon, V.E., & Sanatani, S. (2018). A survey of teacher and student perspectives on how running is taught and evaluated in British Columbia Schools. University of British Columbia Medical Journal, 9(2), 1619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rizzo, T.L., & Vispoel, W.P. (1991). Physical educators’ attributes and attitudes toward teaching students with handicaps. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 8(1), 411. doi:10.1123/apaq.8.1.4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 6878. PubMed ID: 11392867 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. (2018). Generalizability in qualitative research: Misunderstandings, opportunities, and recommendations for the sport and exercise sciences. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 10(1), 137149. doi:10.1080/2159676X.2017.1393221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K.R. (2018) Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 101121. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & Sparkes, A.C. (2016). Interviews. In B. Smith& A.C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 103123). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A. (2017). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In B. Smith& A.C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 103123). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. Murray& K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Qualitative health psychology: Theories and methods. London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A., & Osborn, M. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J.A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (pp. 5480). London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuart, M.E., Lieberman, L., & Hand, K.E. (2006). Beliefs about physical activity among children who are visually impaired and their parents. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 100(4), 223234. doi:10.1177/0145482X0610000405

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Titchkosky, T. (2011). The question of access: Disability, space, meaning. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

  • Wagner, M.O., Haibach, P.S., & Lieberman, L. (2013). Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairment—Research to practice. Developmental Disabilities, 34, 32463252. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.06.030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, S., Read, S., & Priest, H. (2013). Use of reflexivity in a mixed-methods study. Nurse Research, 20(3), 3843. doi:10.7748/nr2013.01.20.3.38.c9496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yardley, L. (2000). Dilemmas in qualitative health research. Psychology & Health, 15(2), 215228. doi:10.1080/08870440008400302

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1319 1181 20
Full Text Views 54 32 0
PDF Downloads 31 19 0