Mindfulness, Contact Anxiety, and Attitudes Toward Students With Visual Impairments Among Certified Adapted Physical Educators

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 Old Dominion University
  • 2 South China Normal University
  • 3 Nanyang Technological University
  • 4 University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal/intrapersonal mindfulness, contact anxiety, and attitudes toward students with visual impairments among certified adapted physical educators. Participants included 115 certified adapted physical educators who completed a 31-item online survey, composed of a 10-item demographic questionnaire, a 14-item mindfulness in teaching scale, a four-item intergroup anxiety scale, and a three-item attitude scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness was a negative predictor of contact anxiety (β = −0.26, p = .007) and contact anxiety negatively predicted attitudes (β = −0.22, p = .02). A mediation analysis revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through contact anxiety, b = 0.09, SE = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [0.006, 0.22]. Collectively, both intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness appear to be responsible for the formation of attitudes, but with different underlying processes involved.

Haegele is with Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Li is with the School of Physical Education and Sport Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China, and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Wilson is with the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.

Li (cxlilee@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • Beamer, J.A., & Yun, J. (2014). Physical educators’ beliefs and self-reported behaviors toward including students with autism spectrum disorder. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31(4), 362376. PubMed ID: 25211482 doi:10.1123/apaq.2014-0134

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., & Mummendey, A. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 843856. doi:10.1037/a0013470

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borders, A., Earleywine, M., & Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behaviour, 36, 2844. doi:10.1002/ab.20327

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 84, 822848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155159. PubMed ID: 19565683 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

  • Cunningham, G.B., Bopp, T.P., & Sagas, M. (2010). Overcoming cultural barriers in sport management study abroad programs: The influence of extended intergroup contact. International Journal of Sport Management, 11, 347359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (2007). The advantages of an inclusive definition of attitude. Social Cognition, 25, 582602. doi:10.1521/soco.2007.25.5.582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frank, J.L., Jennings, P.A., & Greenberg, M.T. (2016). Validation of the mindfulness in teaching scale. Mindfulness, 7(1), 155163. doi:10.1007/s12671-015-0461-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A. (2019). Inclusion illusion: Questioning the inclusiveness of integrated physical education. Quest, 71(4), 387397. doi:10.1080/00336297.2019.1602547

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Kirk, T.N. (2018). Experiences in physical education: Exploring the intersection of visual impairment and maleness. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(2), 196213. PubMed ID: 29529866 doi:10.1123/apaq.2017-0132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Yessick, A.B., & Zhu, X. (2018). Females with visual impairments in physical education: Exploring the intersection of disability and gender identities. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(3), 298308. PubMed ID: 29985772 doi:10.1080/02701367.2018.1484067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Zhu, X. (2017). Experiences of individuals with visual impairments in integrated physical education: A retrospective study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(4), 425435. PubMed ID: 28723249 doi:10.1080/02701367.2017.1346781

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hofmann, S.G., Sawyer, A.T., Witt, A.A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169183. PubMed ID: 20350028 doi:10.1037/a0018555

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kee, Y.H., Li, C., Kong, L.C., Tang, C.J., & Chuang, K.-L. (2019). Scoping review of mindfulness research: A topic modelling approach. Mindfulness, 10, 14741488. doi:10.1007/s12671-019-01136-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaBelle, S., Booth-Butterfield, M., & Rittenour, C.E. (2013). Attitudes toward profoundly hearing impaired and deaf individuals: Links with intergroup anxiety, social dominance orientation, and contact. Western Journal of Communication, 77(4), 489506. doi:10.1080/10570314.2013.779017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C., Wong, N.K., Sum, R.K.W., & Yu, C.W. (2019). Preservice teachers’ mindfulness and attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder: The role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(1), 150163. doi:10.1123/apaq.2018-0044

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parchomiuk, M. (2018). Teacher empathy and attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 66(1), 5669. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2018.1460654

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pratscher, S.D., Rose, A.J., Markovitz, L., & Bettencourt, A. (2017). Interpersonal mindfulness: Investigating mindfulness in interpersonal interactions, co-rumination, and friendship quality. Mindfulness, 9(4), 12061215. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0859-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smalley, S.L., & Winston, D. (2010). Fully Present: The Science, Art, and Practice of Mindfulness. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press.

  • Stephan, W.G., & Stephan, C.W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41(3), 157175. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01134.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tant, M., & Watelain, E. (2016). Forty years later, a systematic literature review on inclusion in physical education (1975–2015): A teacher perspective. Educational Research Review, 19, 117. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2016.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, W.J., Richards, K.A.R., & Kelly, L.E. (2017). The socialization of adapted physical educators: What is known and future directions. Palaestra, 31(4), 2631.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 88 88 43
Full Text Views 15 15 4
PDF Downloads 9 9 3