Seasonal Changes in Breathing Pattern, Trunk Stabilization, and Muscular Power in Paralympic Swimmers

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 Università degli Studi di Milano
  • 2 IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano
  • 3 University of Insubria
  • 4 University of the Sunshine Coast
  • 5 Italian Swimming Paralympic Federation (FINP)
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.

Cavaggioni, Trecroci, and Alberti are with the Dept. of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Cavaggioni is also with the Dept. of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Obesity Unit, and Laboratory of Nutrition and Obesity Research, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy. Formenti is with the Dept. of Biotechnology and Life Sciences (DBSV), University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. Hogarth is with the School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia. Tosin is with the Italian Swimming Paralympic Federation (FINP), Rome, Italy.

Cavaggioni (luca.cavaggioni@unimi.it) is corresponding author.
  • Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Marchante, D., Baz-Valle, E., Alonso-Molero, I., Jiménez, S.L., & Muñóz-López, M. (2017). Analysis of wearable and smartphone-based technologies for the measurement of barbell velocity in different resistance training exercises. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 649. PubMed ID: 28894425 doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00649

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batterham, A.M., & Hopkins, W.G. (2006). Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(1), 5057. PubMed ID: 19114737

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beckman, E.M., & Tweedy, S.M. (2009). Towards evidence-based classification in Paralympic athletics: Evaluating the validity of activity limitation tests for use in classification of Paralympic running events. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(13), 10671072. PubMed ID: 19825817 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.061804

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bliss, L.S., & Teeple, P. (2005). Core stability: The centerpiece of any training program. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 4(3), 179183. PubMed ID: 15907272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burkett, B., Mellifont, R., & Mason, B. (2010). The influence of swimming start components for selected Olympic and Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(2), 134141. PubMed ID: 20498484 doi:10.1123/jab.26.2.134

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavaggioni, L., Trecroci, A., Tosin, M., Iaia, F.M., & Alberti, G. (2019). Individualized dry-land intervention program for an elite Paralympic swimmer. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 59(1), 8286. PubMed ID: 29498253 doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.18.08242-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Courtney, R., Cohen, M., & Reece, J. (2009). Comparison of the manual assessment of respiratory motion (MARM) and the Hi Lo breathing assessment in determining a simulated breathing pattern. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 12(3), 8691. doi:10.1016/j.ijosm.2008.10.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Courtney, R., van Dixhoorn, J., & Cohen, M. (2008). Evaluation of breathing pattern: comparison of a manual assessment of respiratory motion (MARM) and respiratory induction plethysmography. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33(2), 91100. PubMed ID: 18320303 doi:10.1007/s10484-008-9052-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dejanovic, A., Cambridge, E.D.J., & McGill, S. (2014). Isometric torso muscle endurance profiles in adolescents aged 15–18: Normative values for age and gender differences. Annals of Human Biology, 41(2), 153158. PubMed ID: 24112076 doi:10.3109/03014460.2013.837508

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dingley, A.A., Pyne, D., & Burkett, B. (2014). Dry-land bilateral hand-force production and swimming performance in Paralympic swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(11), e4. PubMed ID: 25009964 doi:10.1055/s-0033-1364023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dingley, A.A., Pyne, D.B., & Burkett, B. (2015). Relationships between propulsion and anthropometry in Paralympic swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(8), 978985. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0186

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dingley, A.A., Pyne, D.B., Youngson, J., & Burkett, B. (2015). Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(3), 619626. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000000684

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dornick, K.V., & Spencer, N.L.I. (2020). What’s in a sport class? the classification experiences of Paraswimmers. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 37(1), 119. PubMed ID: 31509797 doi:10.1123/apaq.2019-0007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fulton, S.K., Pyne, D.B., Hopkins, W.G., & Burkett, B. (2009). Variability and progression in competitive performance of Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(5), 535539. PubMed ID: 19219736 doi:10.1080/02640410802641418

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fulton, S.K., Pyne, D.B., Hopkins, W.G., & Burkett, B. (2010). Training characteristics of Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(2), 471478. PubMed ID: 20072051 doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181c09a9e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gołaś, A., Zwierzchowska, A., Maszczyk, A., Wilk, M., Stastny, P., & Zając, A. (2017). Neuromuscular control during the bench press movement in an elite disabled and able-bodied athlete. Journal of Human Kinetics, 60(1), 209215. doi:10.1515/hukin-2017-0110

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gonjo, T., Kishimoto, T., Sanders, R., Saito, M., & Takagi, H. (2019). Front crawl body roll characteristics in a Paralympic medallist and national level swimmers with unilateral arm amputation. Sports Biomechanics, 27, 117. doi:10.1080/14763141.2019.1654536

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogarth, L., Burkett, B., Van de Vliet, P., & Payton, C. (2020). Maximal fully tethered swim performance in Para swimmers with physical impairment. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 15(6), 816824. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2019-0515

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogarth, L, Nicholson, V., Spathis, J., Tweedy, S., Beckman, E., Connick, M., … Burkett, B. (2019). A battery of strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(4), 404413. doi:10.1080/02640414.2018.1504606

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogarth, L., Payton, C., Nicholson, V., Spathis, J., Tweedy, S., Connick, M., … Burkett, B. (2019). Classifying motor coordination impairment in Para swimmers with brain injury. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(5), 526531. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogarth, L., Payton, C., Van de Vliet, P., Connick, M., & Burkett, B. (2018). A novel method to guide classification of para swimmers with limb deficiency. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28(11), 23972406. PubMed ID: 29846980 doi:10.1111/sms.13229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iizuka, S., Imai, A., Koizumi, K., Okuno, K., & Kaneoka, K. (2016). Immediate effects of deep trunk muscle training on swimming start performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 11(7), 10481053. PubMed ID: 27999719

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, R. (2006). Reflections on the Athens Paralympics: Working with wheelchair rugby. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 2, 4145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keiner, M., Wirth, K., Fuhrmann, S., Kunz, M., Hartmann, H., & Haff, G.G. (2019). The influence of upper- and lower-body maximum strength on swim block start, turn, and overall swim performance in sprint swimming. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Advance online publication. PubMed ID: 31425457. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000003229

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kilding, A.E., Brown, S., & McConnell, A.K. (2010). Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(3), 505511. PubMed ID: 19841931 doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1228-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krabben, K.J., Ravensbergen, R.H.J.C., Nakamoto, H., & Mann, D.L. (2019). The development of evidence-based classification of vision impairment in judo: A Delphi study. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 98. PubMed ID: 30828311 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00098

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loturco, I., Pereira, L.A., Winckler, C., Bragança, J.R., da Fonseca, R.A., Kobal, R., … Franchini, E. (2017). Performance changes of elite Paralympic judo athletes during a Paralympic games cycle: A case study with the Brazilian national team. Journal of Human Kinetics, 60(1), 217224. doi:10.1515/hukin-2017-0111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loturco, I., Winckler, C., Kobal, R., Cal Abad, C.C., Kitamura, K., Veríssimo, A.W., … Nakamura, F.Y. (2015). Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season. Frontiers in Physiology, 6, 323. PubMed ID: 26594181 doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malone, L.A., Sanders, R.H., Schiltz, J.H., & Steadward, R.D. (2001). Effects of visual impairment on stroke parameters in Paralympic swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(12), 20982103. PubMed ID: 11740305 doi:10.1097/00005768-200112000-00019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mancas, M., Ferrera, V.P., Riche, N., & Taylor, J.G. (2016). From human attention to computational attention: A multidisciplinary approach. Springer-Verlag.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, D.L., & Ravensbergen, H.J.C. (2018). International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) joint position stand on the sport-specific classification of athletes with vision impairment. Sports Medicine, 48(9), 20112023. PubMed ID: 29987675 doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0949-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maruyama, Y., & Yanai, T. (2015). Abdominal breathing manoeuvre reduces passive drag acting on gliding swimmers. Sports Biomechanics, 14(4), 413423. PubMed ID: 26715235 doi:10.1080/14763141.2015.1084030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGill, S.M., Childs, A., & Liebenson, C. (1999). Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: Clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(8), 941944. PubMed ID: 10453772 doi:10.1016/s0003-9993(99)90087-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morouço, P., Neiva, H., González-Badillo, J.J., Garrido, N., Marinho, D.A., & Marques, M.C. (2011). Associations between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance in elite athletes: A pilot study. Journal of Human Kinetics, 29, 105112. doi:10.2478/v10078-011-0065-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mujika, I., Chatard, J.C., Busso, T., Geyssant, A., Barale, F., & Lacoste, L. (1995). Effects of training on performance in competitive swimming. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 20(4), 395406. PubMed ID: 8563672 doi:10.1139/h95-031

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patil, D.D., Salian, D.S.C., & Yardi, D.S. (2012). The effect of core strengthening on performance of young competitive swimmers. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(6), 24702477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pérez-Castilla, A., Piepoli, A., Delgado-García, G., Garrido-Blanca, G., & García-Ramos, A. (2019). Reliability and concurrent validity of seven commercially available devices for the assessment of movement velocity at different intensities during the bench press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(5), 12581265. PubMed ID: 31034462 doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000003118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plisk, S.S., & Stone, M.H. (2003). Periodization strategies. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 25(6), 19.

  • Puce, L., Marinelli, L., Pierantozzi, E., Mori, L., Pallecchi, I., Bonifazi, M., … Trompetto, C. (2018). Training methods and analysis of races of a top level Paralympic swimming athlete. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 14(4), 612620. PubMed ID: 30276182 doi:10.12965/jer.1836254.127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ravensbergen, H.J.C., Genee, A.D., & Mann, D.L. (2018). Expert consensus to guide the classification of Paralympic swimmers with vision impairment: A Delphi study. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1756. PubMed ID: 30386271 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifert, L., Chehensse, A., Tourny-Chollet, C., Lemaitre, F., & Chollet, D. (2008). Effect of breathing pattern on arm coordination symmetry in front crawl. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(5), 16701676. PubMed ID: 18714216 doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e318182029d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silvatti, A.P., Sarro, K.J., Cerveri, P., Baroni, G., & Barros, R.M.L. (2012). A 3D kinematic analysis of breathing patterns in competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(14), 15511560. PubMed ID: 22897476 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.713976

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinnott-O’Connor, C., Comyns, T.M., Nevill, A.M., & Warrington, G.D. (2018). Salivary biomarkers and training load during training and competition in Paralympic swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(7), 839843. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0683

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sprent, P., & Smeeton, N.C. (2016). Applied nonparametric statistical methods. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Tweedy, S.M., & Vanlandewijck, Y.C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand—Background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(4), 259269. PubMed ID: 19850575 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.065060

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanlandewijck, Y.C., & Thompson, W.R. (2016). Training and coaching the Paralympic athlete. John Wiley & Sons.

  • Vanlandewijck, Y.C., Verellen, J., & Tweedy, S. (2011). Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: Impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(10), 10891096. PubMed ID: 21756128 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.576694

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weston, M., Hibbs, A.E., Thompson, K.G., & Spears, I.R. (2015). Isolated core training improves sprint performance in national-level junior swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(2), 204210. PubMed ID: 25025936 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0488

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willardson, J.M. (2007). Core stability training: Applications to sports conditioning programs. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 979985. doi:10.1519/r-20255.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, S.K., & Williams, T. (1999). Paralympic swimming performance, impairment, and the functional classification system. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(3), 251270. doi:10.1123/apaq.16.3.251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 180 180 177
Full Text Views 15 15 13
PDF Downloads 7 7 6