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The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.
Cavaggioni, Trecroci, and Alberti are with the Dept. of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Cavaggioni is also with the Dept. of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Obesity Unit, and Laboratory of Nutrition and Obesity Research, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy. Formenti is with the Dept. of Biotechnology and Life Sciences (DBSV), University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. Hogarth is with the School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia. Tosin is with the Italian Swimming Paralympic Federation (FINP), Rome, Italy.