Factors Associated With Penalty Outcome on Male Elite Goalball

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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  • 1 University of São Paulo
  • | 2 KIHU—Research Institute for Olympic Sports
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The authors’ purpose was to examine the factors associated with penalty outcomes of male elite goalball. A total of 122 video-recorded matches from two Paralympic Games (i.e., 2012 and 2016) and the 2014 Goalball World Championship were assessed using notational analysis. Individual (n = 2), situational (n = 4), and performance variables (n = 7) were analyzed with good strength of agreement for intra- and interrater kappa index values. Their results showed that penalties play a very important role in the final score, composing around 25% of total goals in elite goalball matches. Winners were awarded on average with 62% of penalties and had 66% effectiveness compared with losers (31% and 53%) or drawers (8% and 52%). Based on the authors’ findings, penalty takers should direct their throws at specific target sectors on the court, which could increase their rate of success to over 80%.

Furtado is with the School of Physical Education and Sport, and Alves, Travitzki, and Morato, the School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Häyrinen is with the KIHU—Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Furtado (otaviofurtado@usp.br) is corresponding author.
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