Outdoor Challenge Education and Self-Esteem and Locus of Control of Children with Behavior Disorders

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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  • 1 University of Delaware
  • 2 Indiana University
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The impact of an outdoor challenge education program on self-esteem and locus of control of children with behavior disorders was investigated. The subjects consisted of four self-contained elementary special education classrooms of boys with behavior disorders. The experimental group consisted of two classrooms (N = 14), and the control group consisted of two classrooms (N = 17). An untreated control group design with pretest and post-test, expanded by the researcher to include two additional groups (experimental and control) without a pretest, was employed as a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design. There were no significant differences in either self-esteem or locus of control between the control and experimental groups as a consequence of the outdoor challenge program.

Request reprints from Dr. Stephen J. Langsner, Department of Physical Education, Carpenter Sports Building, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716.

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