A Comparison of the Fundamental Motor Skills of Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Visual Impairments

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 University of South Carolina
  • 2 The Ohio State University
  • 3 Miami Lighthouse for the Blind
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are an underlying mechanism driving physical activity behavior and promoting positive developmental trajectories for health. However, little is known about FMS of preschool-aged children with visual impairments (VI). The purpose of this study was to examine the FMS of preschool-aged children (N = 25) with (n = 10) and without (n = 15) VI as measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3. Children without VI performed significantly higher than their peers for locomotor (M = +11.87, p = .014, η2 = .31) and ball skills (M = +13.69, p < .001, η2 = .56). Regardless of the presence of a VI, many participants struggled with developing FMS, with the greatest disparity resting within ball skills. These findings help to clarify the FMS levels of preschool-aged children with VI. Thus, there is a need for both further inquiry and intervention for all children.

Brian and Taunton Miedema are with the Dept. of Physical Education, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA. Johnson is with The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Chica is with the Miami Lighthouse for the Blind, Miami, FL, USA.

Brian (abrian@sc.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Aadland, K.N., Moe, V.F., Aadland, E., Anderssen, S.A., Resaland, G.K., & Ommundsen, Y. (2017). Relationships between physical activity, sedentary time, aerobic fitness, motor skills and executive function and academic performance in children. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 12, 1018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Bostick, L., Starrett, A., Klavina, A., Taunton, S., Pennell, A., … Lieberman, L.J. (2020). The effects of ecologically valid intervention strategies on the locomotor skills of children with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 37(2), 177192. PubMed ID: 32106080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Goodway, J.D., Logan, J., & Sutherland, S. (2017). SKIPing with Head Start teachers: Influence of T-SKIP on object-control skills. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(4), 479491. PubMed ID: 29048256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Pennell, A., Haibach-Beach, P., Foley, J., Taunton, S., & Lieberman, L.J. (2019). Correlates of physical activity among children with visual impairments. Disability and Health Journal, 12(2), 328333.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Pennell, A., Taunton, S., Starrett, A., Howard-Shaughnessy, C., Goodway, J.D., … Stodden, D.F. (2019). Motor competence levels and developmental delay in early childhood: A multicenter and cross-sectional study conducted in the USA. Sports Medicine, 49(10), 16091618.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Starrett, A., Pennell, A., Haibach-Beach, P., Gilbert, E., Stribing, A., Taunton Miedema, S., & Lieberman, L.J. (2021). Longitudinal locomotor competence and body mass index across self-reported gender and vision level for youth with visual impairments: A three-year investigation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 38(2), 268–285.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., & Taunton, S. (2018). Effectiveness of intervention varies on instructor and pedagogical strategy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(2), 222233.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Taunton, S., Lieberman, L.J., Haibach-Beach, P., Foley, J., & Santarossa, S. (2018). Psychometric properties for the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 for children with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(2), 145158. PubMed ID: 29523021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A., Taunton, S., Shortt, C., Pennell, A., & Sacko, R. (2019). Predictors of physical activity for preschool children with and without disabilities from socioeconomically disadvantaged settings. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(1), 7790.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, M., & Gu, X. (2018). The role of executive function in linking fundamental motor skills and reading proficiency in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 250255.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, J.E. (2007). On the problem of motor skill development. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(5), 3944.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, J.E., & Metcalfe, J.S. (2002). The mountain of motor development: A metaphor. In. J.E. Clark & J.H. Humphrey (Eds.), Motor development: Research and review (Vol. 2, pp. 6295). National Association for Sport and Physical Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cummins, A., Piek, J.P., & Dyck, M.J. (2005). Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47(7), 437442 PubMed ID: 15991862

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gagen, L.M., & Getchell, N. (2006). Using ‘constraints’ to design developmentally appropriate movement activities for early childhood education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(3), 227232.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getchell, N., & Gagen, L. (2006). Adapting activities for all children: Considering constraints can make planning simple and effective. Palaestra, 22(1), 2058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway, J.D., & Branta, C.F. (2003). Influence of a motor skill intervention on fundamental motor skill development of disadvantaged preschool children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(1), 3646. PubMed ID: 12659474

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Brian, A., & Goodway, J.D. (2015). Fundamental motor skills and school-aged individuals with visual impairments: A review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(3), 320327.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haibach, P.S., Wagner, M.O., & Lieberman, L.J. (2014). Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(10), 25772584. PubMed ID: 25014271

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B., & Anderson, R.E. (2018). Multivariate data analysis. Cengage.

  • Houwen, S., Visscher, C., Hartman, E., & Lemmink, K.A.P. (2007). Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(2), 1623. PubMed ID: 17479570

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H., Carlson, A.G., Curby, T.W., & Winsler, A. (2016). Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53, 4360. PubMed ID: 26852279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macdonald, K., Milne, N., Orr, R., & Pope, R. (2018). Relationships between motor proficiency and academic performance in mathematics and reading in school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), 16031628.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newell, K. (1984). Physical constraints to development of motor skills. In J.R. Thomas (Ed.), Motor development during preschool and elementary years (pp. 105120). Burgess.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newell, K. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M.G. Wade & H.T. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control (pp. 341360). Nijhoff.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson L.E., & Goodway, J.D. (2009). Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part I: Object-control skill development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(3), 533542. PubMed ID: 19791639

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, L.E., Stodden, D.F., Barnett, L.M., Lopes, V.P., Logan, S.W., Rodrigues, L.P., & D’Hondt, E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 12731284. PubMed ID: 26201678

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seefeldt, V. (1980). Developmental motor patterns: Implications for elementary school physical education. In C. Nadeau, W. Holliwell, & G. Roberts (Eds.), Psychology of motor behavior and sport (pp. 314323). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shmuelof, L., Krakauer, J.W., & Mazzoni, P. (2012). How is a motor skill learned? Change and invariance at the levels of task success and trajectory control. Journal of Neurophysiology, 108(2), 578594. PubMed ID: 22514286

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodden, D., Goodway, J.D., Langendorfer, S.J., Roberton, M.A., Rudisill, M.E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of physical competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290306.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taunton, S.A., Brian, A., & True, L. (2017). Universally designed motor skill intervention for children with and without disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 29(6), 941954.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, D.A. (2019). The test of gross motor development (3rd ed.). Pro-Ed.

  • Wagner, M.O., Haibach, P.S., & Lieberman, L.J. (2013). Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 32463252. PubMed ID: 23891733

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 396 396 146
Full Text Views 14 14 5
PDF Downloads 7 7 5