Exploring the Relationship Between Quality and Quantity of Physical Activity Participation in Community-Based Exercise Programs for Persons With Physical Disabilities

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
View More View Less
  • 1 School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
  • | 2 Department of Kinesiology & Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
  • | 3 Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation of Greater Montreal (CRIR), Montreal, QC, Canada
  • | 4 Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • | 5 Mental Health and Physical Activity Research Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • | 6 International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD) and School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Restricted access

Community-based exercise programs for persons with disabilities promote greater quantity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation among their members, perhaps because of the quality experiences fostered by the program. This study aimed to explore the relationship between quality and quantity of physical activity participation in the context of community-based exercise programming and the role that gender plays in this relationship. Adults with physical disabilities (N = 91; M age = 55, 49 men) from three community-based exercise programs across Canada completed a survey asking about quality participation (Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation [MeEAP]) and LTPA. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between MeEAP scores and LTPA. Quality participation was not related to LTPA, even with gender included as a moderator. Men reported higher levels of LTPA and quality participation than women, highlighting gender differences that should be considered when researching and designing exercise programs for individuals with disabilities.

Tomasone (tomasone@queensu.ca) is corresponding author, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0446-9706

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material (pdf 264 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S1 (pdf 263 KB)
  • Adam, S., & Morgan, K. (2018). Meaningful components of a community-based exercise program for individuals with disabilities: A qualitative study. Disability and Health Journal, 11(2), 301305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alavi, M., Visentin, D.C., Thapa, D.K., Hunt, G.E., Watson, R., & Cleary, M. (2020). Chi-square for model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76, 22092211. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alchemer. (2019). SurveyGizmo software. https://www.alchemer.com/

  • Allan, V., Smith, B., Coté, J., Martin Ginis, K.A., & Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2018). Narratives of participation among individuals with physical disabilities: A life-course analysis of athletes’ experiences and development in parasport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 37, 170178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.10.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azevedo, M.R., Araújo, C.L.P., Reichert, F.F., Siqueira, F.V., da Silva, M.C., & Hallal, P.C. (2007). Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Public Health, 52(1), 815. https://doi-org/10.1007/s00038-006-5062-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beauchamp, M.R., Carron, A.V., McCutcheon, S., & Harper, O. (2007). Older adults’ preferences for exercising alone versus in groups: Considering contextual congruence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(2), 200206. https://doi-org/10.1007/BF02879901

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, T. (2006). CFA model comparison and revision. In D.A. Kenny (Ed.), Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (pp. 157211). Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caron, J.G., Ginis, K.A.M., Rocchi, M., & Sweet, S.N. (2019). Development of the measure of experiential aspects of participation for people with physical disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 100(1), 6777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2018.08.183

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caspersen, C.J., Powell, K.E., & Christenson, G.M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, U., Schmidt, L., Budtz-Jørgensen, E., & Avlund, K. (2006). Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: Results from a Danish intervention study. Health Education & Behaviour, 33(5), 677689. https://doi-org/10.1177/1090198105277397

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cummings, I., Lamontagne, M., Sweet, S.N., Spivock, M., & Batcho, C.S. (2019). Canadian-French adaptation and test-retest reliability of the leisure time physical activity questionnaire for people with disabilities. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 62(3), 161167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2018.12.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eisinga, R., Grotenhuis, M., & Pelzer, B. (2013). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637642. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-012-0416-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, M., Shirazipour, C., Allan, V., Zanhour, M., Sweet, S., Martin Ginis, K., & Latimer-Cheung, A. (2018). Integrating insights from the parasport community to understand optimal experiences: The Quality Parasport Participation Framework. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 37, 7990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.04.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field, A. (2000, May 24). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Discovering Statistics. https://www.discoveringstatistics.com/repository/sem.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference (6th ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429056765

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillette, D.B., Petrescu-Prahova, M.G., Herting, J.R., & Belza, B.L. (2015). A pilot study of determinants of ongoing participation in EnhanceFitness: A community-based group exercise program for older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 38(4), 194201. https://doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0000000000000041

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, P.A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J.G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42(2), 377381.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6(1), 155. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hughes, J.P., McDowell, M.A., & Brody, D.J. (2008). Leisure-time physical activity among US adults 60 or more years of age: Results from NHANES 1999–2004. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5(3), 347358. https://doi-org.proxy.queensu.ca/10.1123/jpah.5.3.347

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutzler, Y. (2003). Attitudes toward the participation of individuals with disabilities in physical activity: A review. Quest, 55(4), 347373. https://doi-org/10.1080/00336297.2003.10491809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM Corporation. (2020). IBM statistics for windows, version 27.0 [computer software].

  • Jackson, J., Williams, T., McEachern, B., Latimer-Cheung, A., & Tomasone, J. (2019). Fostering quality experiences: Qualitative perspectives from program members and providers in a community-based exercise program for adults with physical disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 12(2), 296301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2018.11.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

  • Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 863. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, Y.S. (2005). Gender differences in physical activity and walking among older adults. Journal of Women & Aging, 17(1–2), 5570. https://doi.org/10.1300/J074v17n01_05

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Man, K.E. (2019). Exploring narratives of quality participation among adults with physical disabilities in a community-based exercise program: A mixed methods, collective case study approach [Master’s thesis, QSpace]. Queen’s University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Man, K.E., Williams, T.L., Barnim, N., Shirazipour, C.H., Latimer-Cheung, A.E., & Tomasone, J.R. (2020). Exploring how the process of quality participation unfolds for volunteers in community-based exercise programs for persons with disabilities. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 13(2), 300324. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2020.1727554

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Ginis, K.A., Evans, M., Mortenson, W., & Noreau, L. (2017). Broadening the conceptualization of participation of persons with physical disabilities: A configurative review and recommendations. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(2), 395402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.04.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Ginis, K.A., Phang, S.H., Latimer, A.E., & Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K.P. (2012). Reliability and validity tests of the leisure time physical activity questionnaire for people with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(4), 677682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.11.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Ginis, K.A., van der Ploeg, H.P., Foster, C., Lai, B., McBride, C.B., Ng, K., Pratt, M., Shirazipour, C.H., Smith, B., Vásquez, P.M., & Heath, G.W. (2021). Participation of people living with disabilities in physical activity: A global perspective. The Lancet, 398(10298), 443455. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01164-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, K., Taylor, K., Dashner, J., Tucker, S., Walker, C., Bean-Kampwerth, L., Smith, M., & Hollingsworth, H. (2018). A community-cased exercise program for individuals with a mobility disability. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 99(12), 190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2018.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.

  • Qualtrics. (2019). Qualtrics survey software. Qualtrics XM. https://www.qualtrics.com/core-xm/survey-software/

  • Rimmer, J.H. (2012). Getting beyond the plateau: Bridging the gap between rehabilitation and community-based exercise. The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 4(11), 857861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.08.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satorra, A., & Bentler, P.M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye& C.C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variable analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399419). Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shirazipour, C.H., Evans, M.B., Caddick, N., Smith, B., Aiken, A.B., Martin Ginis, K.A., & Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2017). Quality participation experiences in the physical activity domain: Perspectives of veterans with a physical disability. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 29, 4050. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.11.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stubbs, B., Hurley, M., & Smith, T. (2015). What are the factors that influence physical activity participation in adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis? A systematic review of physical activity correlates. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(1), 8094. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0269215514538069

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sweet, S.N., Shi, Z., Rocchi, M., Ramsay, J., Pagé, V., Lamontagne, M., & Gainforth, H.L. (2021). Longitudinal examination of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), participation, and social inclusion upon joining a community-based LTPA program for adults with disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(9), 17461754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.02.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Experimental designs using ANOVA. Duxbury.

  • Tomasone, J.R., Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K.P., Latimer-Cheung, A.E., & Martin Ginis, K.A. (2018). The relationship between the implementation and effectiveness of a nationwide physical activity telephone counseling service for adults with spinal cord injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40(5), 527537. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2016.1261415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ullman, J.B. (2014). Chapter 14: Structural equation modeling. In B.G. Tabachnick& L.S. Fidell (Eds.), Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolf, E.J., Harrington, K.M., Clark, S.L., & Miller, M.W. (2013). Sample size requirements for structural equation models: An evaluation of power, bias and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(6), 913934. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164413495237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmermann, G., Bolter, L.M., Sluka, R., Höller, Y., Bathke, A.C., Thomschewski, A., . . . Trinka, E. (2019). Sample sizes and statistical methods in interventional studies on individuals with spinal cord injury: A systematic review. Journal of Evidence‐Based Medicine, 12(3), 200208. https://doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12356

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 461 461 110
Full Text Views 77 77 31
PDF Downloads 50 50 11