Virtual-Reality Training of Elite Boxers Preparing for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study

in Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Institut National du Sport du Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada
  • | 2 École d’optométrie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
  • | 3 Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada
Restricted access

The COVID-19 pandemic struck right during the Olympic preparation, leading to significant training restrictions such as noncontact practices for combat sports. This case study research describes the application of a complementary virtual-reality (VR) intervention to train elite boxers preparing for Tokyo 2020 during the pandemic. It also addresses the evaluation of broader visuocognitive functions in elite boxers. Six boxers were allocated to two groups: one experimental group trained on a 360° VR (360VR) temporal video-occlusion program, and one active control group trained on a VR game simulation during 11 sessions. Pre- and postevaluations of specific decision-making performance were performed on a 360VR evaluation test. Fundamental visual and visuocognitive functions were assessed at baseline. Greater on-test decision-making improvements were observed in the 360VR-trained group compared with VR game, and 360VR offered self-reported satisfactory, representative, and safe individual training opportunities for the boxers. More research is warranted to explore the applications of 360VR and VR simulation for psycho-perceptual-motor-skill evaluation and training. Superior visuocognitive performance was observed in elite boxers and should also be a topic of further investigation. The methodological approach, implementation, and reflections are provided in detail to guide practitioners toward the applied use of VR in the sporting environment.

Romeas (thomas.romeas@umontreal.ca) is corresponding author.

  • Akbas, A., Marszalek, W., Kamieniarz, A., Polechonski, J., Slomka, K.J., & Juras, G. (2019). Application of virtual reality in competitive athletes—A review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 69, 516. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alves, H., Voss, M.W., Boot, W.R., Deslandes, A., Cossich, V., Salles, J.I., & Kramer, A.F. (2013). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite volleyball players. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 36. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00036

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, K.J.M., Novak, A.R., Pluss, M.A., Coutts, A.J., & Fransen, J. (2019). Assessing the validity of a video-based decision-making assessment for talent identification in youth soccer. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(6), 729734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bird, J.M. (2020). The use of virtual reality head-mounted displays within applied sport psychology. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 11(2), 115128. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2018.1563573

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broadbent, D.P., Causer, J., Williams, A.M., & Ford, P.R. (2015). Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: Future research directions. European Journal of Sport Science, 15(4), 322331. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.957727

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casula, E.P., Tieri, G., Rocchi, L., Pezzetta, R., Maiella, M., Pavone, E.F., . . . Koch, G. (2022). Feeling of ownership over an embodied avatar’s hand brings about fast changes of fronto-parietal cortical dynamics. Journal of Neuroscience, 42(4), 692701. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0636-21.2021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Çetin, O., Beyleroğlu, M., Bağış, Y.E., & Suna, G. (2018). The effect of the exercises brain on boxers’ eye-hand coordination, dynamic balance and visual attention performance. Physical Education of Students, 22(3), 112119. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2018.0301

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chaumillon, R., Romeas, T., Paillard, C., Bernardin, D., Giraudet, G., Bouchard, J.F., & Faubert, J. (2017a). Enhancing data visualisation to capture the simulator sickness phenomenon: On the usefulness of radar charts. Data Brief, 13, 301305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.05.051

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chaumillon, R., Romeas, T., Paillard, C., Bernardin, D., Giraudet, G., Bouchard, J.F., & Faubert, J. (2017b). The use of transdermal scopolamine to solve methodological issues raised by gender differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness. Transportation Research. Part F, Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 47, 4258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2017.04.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W.-Y., Wu, S.K., Song, T.-F., Chou, K.-M., Wang, K.-Y., Chang, Y.-C., & Goodbourn, P.T. (2017). Perceptual and motor performance of combat-sport athletes differs according to specific demands of the discipline. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 124(1), 293313. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516681342

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cotterill, S.T. (2018). Virtual reality and sport psychology: Implications for applied practice. Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(1), 2122. https://doi.org/10.1123/cssep.2018-0002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, C. (2013). Understanding perception and action in sport: How can virtual reality technology help? Sports Technology, 6(4), 161169. https://doi.org/10.1080/19346182.2013.855224

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Waelle, S., Van Bostraeten, S., Lenoir, M., Deconinck, F.J.A., & Bennett, S.J. (2021). Visual cognition and experience mediate the relation between age and decision making in youth volleyball players. Optometry and Vision Science, 98(7), 802808. https://doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001724

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Russo, F., & Spinelli, D. (2010). Sport is not always healthy: Executive brain dysfunction in professional boxers. Psychophysiology, 47(3), 425434. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00950.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Virgilio, T.G., Ietswaart, M., Wilson, L., Donaldson, D.I., & Hunter, A.M. (2019). Understanding the consequences of repetitive subconcussive head impacts in sport: Brain changes and dampened motor control are seen after boxing practice. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 294. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00294

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Discombe, R.M., Bird, J.M., Kelly, A., Blake, R., Harris, D.J., & Vine, S.J. (2022). Effects of traditional and immersive video on anticipation in cricket: A temporal occlusion study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 58, 102088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102088

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fadde, P.J., & Zaichkowsky, L. (2018). Training perceptual-cognitive skills in sports using technology. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 9(4), 239248. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2018.1509162

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faubert, J. (2013). Professional athletes have extraordinary skills for rapidly learning complex and neutral dynamic visual scenes. Scientific Reports, 3(1), 1154. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01154

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fortes, L.S., Almeida, S.S., Praça, G.M., Nascimento-Júnior, J.R.A., Lima-Junior, D., Barbosa, B.T., & Ferreira, M.E.C. (2021). Virtual reality promotes greater improvements than video-stimulation screen on perceptual-cognitive skills in young soccer athletes. Human Movement Science, 79, 102856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2021.102856

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gierczuk, D., Bujak, Z., Rowiński, J., & Dmitriyev, A. (2013). Selected coordination motor abilities in elite wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 19(4), 230234. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10197-012-0022-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, R. (2017). Transfer of training from virtual to real baseball batting. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, R. (2018). Comparing cueing and constraints interventions for increasing launch angle in baseball batting. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7(3), 318332. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000131

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, R. (2019). Virtual environments and their role in developing perceptual-cognitive skills in sports. In A.M. Williams & R.C. Jackson (Eds.), Anticipation and decision making in sport (pp. 342358). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315146270-19

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, R. (2021). How we learn to move: A revolution in the way we coach and practice sports skills. Perception Action Consulting & Education LLC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grushko, A., Bochaver, K., Shishkina, A., Kabanov, D., Konstantinova, M., Vavaev, A., & Kasatkin, V. (2016). Psychological and psychophysiological profile in combat sports. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 70. https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v11i2s.4176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hadlow, S.M., Panchuk, D., Mann, D.L., Portus, M.R., & Abernethy, B. (2018). Modified perceptual training in sport: A new classification framework. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(9), 950958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, D., Buckingham, G., Wilson, M., Brookes, J., Mushtaq, F., Mon-Williams, M., & Vine, S. (2020). The effect of a virtual reality environment on gaze behaviour and motor skill learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 50, 101721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101721

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, D., Buckingham, G., Wilson, M., & Vine, S. (2019). Virtually the same? How impaired sensory information in virtual reality may disrupt vision for action. Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation Cerebrale, 237(11), 27612766. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05642-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, D., Wilson, M., & Vine, S. (2020). Development and validation of a simulation workload measure: The simulation task load index (SIM-TLX). Virtual Reality, 24(1), 110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00422-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haskins, A.J., Mentch, J., Botch, T.L., & Robertson, C.E. (2020). Active vision in immersive, 360° real-world environments. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 14304. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71125-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hausegger, T., Vater, C., & Hossner, E.-J. (2019). Peripheral vision in martial arts experts: The cost-dependent anchoring of gaze. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 41(3), 137145. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2018-0091

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodges, N.J., Wyder-Hodge, P.A., Hetherington, S., Baker, J., Besler, Z., & Spering, M. (2021). Topical review: Perceptual-cognitive skills, methods, and skill-based comparisons in interceptive sports. Optometry and Vision Science, 98(7), 681695. https://doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001727

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hohmann, T., Obeloer, H., Schlapkohl, N., & Raab, M. (2016). Does training with 3D videos improve decision-making in team invasion sports? Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(8), 746755. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1069380

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, W.G. (2017). A spreadsheet for monitoring an individual’s changes and trend. Sportscience, 21, 59. https://sportsci.org/2017/wghtrend.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, P., Li, X., Ma, B., Guo, H., Zhang, Z., & Mao, L. (2020). Dynamic visual attention characteristics and their relationship to match performance in skilled basketball players. PeerJ, 8, e9803. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9803

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaluga, E., Straburzynska-Lupa, A., & Rostkowska, E. (2020). Hand-eye coordination, movement reaction time and hand tactile sensitivity depending on the practiced sports discipline. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 60(1), 1725. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09726-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kennedy, R.S., Lane, N.E., Berbaum, K.S., & Lilienthal, M.G. (1993). Simulator sickness questionnaire: An enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3(3), 203220. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap0303_3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kittel, A., Larkin, P., Cunningham, I., & Spittle, M. (2020). 360°VR: A SWOT analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2525. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.563474

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kittel, A., Larkin, P., Elsworthy, N., Lindsay, R., & Spittle, M. (2020). Effectiveness of 360° virtual reality and match broadcast video to improve decision-making skill. Science and Medicine in Football, 4(4), 255262. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2020.1754449

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kittel, A., Larkin, P., Elsworthy, N., & Spittle, M. (2019). Using 360° virtual reality as a decision-making assessment tool in sport. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(9), 10491053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.03.012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klostermann, A., & Moeinirad, S. (2020). Fewer fixations of longer duration? Expert gaze behavior revisited. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 50(1), 146161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-019-00616-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krabben, K., Orth, D., & van der Kamp, J. (2019). Combat as an interpersonal synergy: An ecological dynamics approach to combat sports. Sports Medicine, 49(12), 18251836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01173-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krenn, B., Finkenzeller, T., Würth, S., & Amesberger, G. (2018). Sport type determines differences in executive functions in elite athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38, 7279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.06.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laby, D.M., Kirschen, D.G., & Pantall, P. (2011). The visual function of olympic-level athletes-an initial report. Eye & Contact Lens, 37(3), 116122. https://doi.org/10.1097/ICL.0b013e31820c5002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lesiakowski, P., Zwierko, T., & Krzepota, J. (2013). Visuospatial attentional functioning in amateur boxers. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 4(2), 141144. https://doi.org/10.5604/20815735.1090659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mangine, G.T., Hoffman, J.R., Wells, A.J., Gonzalez, A.M., Rogowski, J.P., Townsend, J.R., . . . Stout, J.R. (2014). Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(9), 24062414. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000550

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, D.T., Williams, A.M., Ward, P., & Janelle, C.M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(4), 457478. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.29.4.457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marteniuk, R.G. (1976). Information processing in motor skills. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

  • Martínez de Quel, Ó., & Bennett, S.J. (2016). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in combat sport: From scientific research to training. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 12. https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v11i2s.4150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martínez de Quel, Ó., & Bennett, S.J. (2019). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in combat sports: A narrative review and a model of perception-action. Revista Internacional de Ciencias Del Deporte, 15(58), 323338. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2019.05802

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinez de Quel, O., Bennett, S.J., Lopez Adan, E., Zapico, A.G., & Saucedo Morales, F. (2015). Choice reaction time is not related to competition success in karate combat. European Journal of Human Movement, 35, 4150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCosker, C., Otte, F., Rothwell, M., & Davids, K. (2021). Principles for technology use in athlete support across the skill level continuum. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/17479541211033471

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milazzo, N., Farrow, D., & Fournier, J.F. (2014). Enhancing the decision making of skilled karate athletes with a “no-feedback” perceptual training program. Archives of Budo, 10, 257267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milazzo, N., Farrow, D., & Fournier, J.F. (2016). Effect of implicit perceptual-motor training on decision-making skills and underpinning gaze behavior in combat athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 123(1), 300323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516656816

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, S., Ohtani, Y., & Imanaka, K. (2002). Reaction times and anticipatory skills of karate athletes. Human Movement Science, 21(2), 213230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9457(02)00103-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muiños, M., & Ballesteros, S. (2013). Visuospatial attention and motor skills in kung fu athletes. Perception, 42(10), 10431050. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7567

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muiños, M., & Ballesteros, S. (2014). Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and nonathletes. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 76(8), 24652476. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0719-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller, S., Van Rens, F., Brenton, J., Morris-Binelli, K., Piggott, B., Rosalie, S.M., & Burgin, M. (2019). Embedding of psycho-perceptual-motor skills can improve athlete assessment and training programs. Journal of Expertise, 2(1), 1422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nougier, V., Ripoll, H., & Stein, J.-F. (1989). Orienting of attention with highly skilled athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 20(3), 205223. https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/1990-27168-001.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connor, L., & Navarro, M. (2021). Virtual reality training improves decision-making skills in boxing. Presented at the ESAN. https://www.esan-network.co.uk/poster-1.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ong, N.C.H. (2015). The use of the Vienna Test System in sport psychology research: A review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8(1), 204223. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2015.1061581

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ottoboni, G., Russo, G., & Tessari, A. (2015). What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(10), 10191027. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.977939

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pagé, C., Bernier, P.-M., & Trempe, M. (2019). Using video simulations and virtual reality to improve decision-making skills in basketball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(21), 24032410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1638193

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panchuk, D., Klusemann, M.J., & Hadlow, S.M. (2018). Exploring the effectiveness of immersive video for training decision-making capability in elite, youth basketball players. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2315. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02315

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petri, K., Emmermacher, P., Danneberg, M., Masik, S., Eckardt, F., Weichelt, S., . . . Witte, K. (2019). Training using virtual reality improves response behavior in karate kumite. Sports Engineering, 22(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-019-0299-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Renshaw, I., Davids, K., Araújo, D., Lucas, A., Roberts, W.M., Newcombe, D.J., & Franks, B. (2018). Evaluating weaknesses of “perceptual-cognitive training” and “brain training” methods in sport: An ecological dynamics critique. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2468. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02468

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richard, V., Lavoie-Léonard, B., & Romeas, T. (2021). Embedding perceptual-cognitive training in the athlete environment: An interdisciplinary case study among elite female goalkeepers preparing for Tokyo 2020. Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(Suppl. 1), S1-44S1-58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ripoll, H., Kerlirzin, Y., Stein, J.-F., & Reine, B. (1995). Analysis of information processing, decision making, and visual strategies in complex problem solving sport situations. Human Movement Science, 14(3), 325349. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-9457(95)00019-O

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ross-Stewart, L., Price, J., Jackson, D., & Hawkins, C. (2018). A preliminary investigation into the use of an imagery assisted virtual reality intervention in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 6, 2030.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russo, G., & Ottoboni, G. (2019). The perceptual—Cognitive skills of combat sports athletes: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 44, 6078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.05.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scharfen, H.-E., & Memmert, D. (2019). Measurement of cognitive functions in experts and elite athletes: A meta-analytic review. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(5), 843860. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3526

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumacher, N., Schmidt, M., Wellmann, K., & Braumann, K.M. (2018). General perceptual-cognitive abilities: Age and position in soccer. PLoS One, 13(8), e0202627. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202627

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tjønndal, A., Haudenhuyse, R., de Geus, B., & Buyse, L. (2021). Concussions, cuts and cracked bones: A systematic literature review on protective headgear and head injury prevention in Olympic boxing. European Journal of Sport Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1872711

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ueyama, Y., & Harada, M. (2021). Effects of first- and third-person perspectives created using a head-mounted display on dart-throwing accuracy. Virtual Reality. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-021-00562-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vater, C., Williams, A.M., & Hossner, E.-J. (2020). What do we see out of the corner of our eye? The role of visual pivots and gaze anchors in sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 81103. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2019.1582082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaughan, R.S., & Laborde, S. (2021). Attention, working-memory control, working-memory capacity, and sport performance: The moderating role of athletic expertise. European Journal of Sport Science, 21(2), 240249. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1739143

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vestberg, T., Gustafson, R., Maurex, L., Ingvar, M., & Petrovic, P. (2012). Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players. PLoS One, 7(4), e34731. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034731

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voss, M.W., Kramer, A.F., Basak, C., Prakash, R.S., & Roberts, B. (2010). Are expert athletes “expert” in the cognitive laboratory? A meta-analytic review of cognition and sport expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 812826. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1588

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, M.A., Davids, K., & Williams, J. (1999). Visual perception and action in sport. Taylor & Francis.

  • Yin, R.K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). https://www.biblio.com/9781452242569

  • Yongtawee, A., Park, J., Kim, Y., & Woo, M. (2021). Athletes have different dominant cognitive functions depending on type of sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2021.1956570

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zwierko, T. (2008). Differences in peripheral perception between athletes and nonathletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 19(2008), 5362. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-008-0004-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2289 2290 435
Full Text Views 63 63 13
PDF Downloads 87 87 18