College Athletes’ Expectations About Injury Rehabilitation With an Athletic Trainer

in International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training
Joe Hart PhD, ATC, Damien Clement PhD, ATC, CC-AASP1, Jordan Hamson-Utley PhD, LAT, ATC2, Monna Arvinen-Barrow PhD, C. Psychol3, Cindra Kamphoff PhD, CC-AASP4, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek PhD, CC-AASP5, and Scott B. Martin PhD, CC-AASP, Fellow-AASP6
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  • 1 West Virginia University
  • | 2 Weber State University
  • | 3 University of Northampton
  • | 4 Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • | 5 University of Tennessee
  • | 6 University of North Texas
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Injured athletes begin the rehabilitation process with expectations about the nature of the working relationship with an athletic trainer. These expectations can infuence the effectiveness of the assistance provided.


To determine whether male and female athletes differed in terms of expectations about injury rehabilitation services with an athletic trainer.


A questionnaire was administered to student athletes that assessed expectations about injury rehabilitation. Setting: Five colleges and universities.

Patients or Other Participants:

Questionnaire responses were provided by 679 student athletes (443 males and 236 females).

Main Outcome Measure:

Responses to the Expectations about Athletic Training questionnaire were used to assess factors identifed as Personal Commitment, Facilitative Conditions, Athletic Trainer Expertise, and Realism.


A statistically signifcant interaction between gender and prior experience was identifed. Male athletes with no prior experience had lower expectations for a facilitative environment. Female athletes with prior experience were less likely to have realistic expectations.


Gender and prior experience infuence athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation with an athletic trainer.

Damien Clement is an assistant professor with the College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences at West Virginia University in Morgantown. He is also an athletic trainer and certified consultant with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.

Jordan Hamson-Utley is an assistant professor and Director of the Undergraduate Athletic Training Program at Weber State University, Ogden UT. She is also a licensed athletic trainer.

Monna Arvinen-Barrow is a senior lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology at the University of Northampton, UK.

Cindra Kamphoff is an associate professor and Coordinator of the Sport and Exercise Psychology Graduate Program at Minnesota State University, Mankato. She is also a certified consultant with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.

Rebecca Zakrajsek is with the Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. She is also a certified consultant and fellow with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.

Scott B. Martin is a professor in the Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, & Recreation at the University of North Texas, Denton. He is also a consultant and fellow with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.