Crushed ice bag, ice massage, and cold water immersion.
Main Outcome Measures:
Time required to induce numbness and the amount of time numbness remained after removal of each mode of cryotherapy.
Ice massage and cold water immersion produced numbness significantly faster than the crushed ice. There were no significant differences in terms of numbness duration.
Changes in cutaneous sensation can be achieved in a relatively short amount of time (6–12 minutes) with ice massage and cold water immersion. The duration of the treatment effect did not differ among the three modes of cryotherapy administration.
Jenna K. Cataldi is a head athletic trainer, Huguenot High School, Bon Secours Richmond Health System in Richmond, VA.
Kimberly A. Pritchard is an assistant professor, Division of Athletic Training at Shenandoah University in Winchester, VA.
Joseph M. Hart is an assistant professor, Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA.
Susan A. Saliba is an associate professor, Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA.