Novice Versus Expert Intertester Reliability of Two-Dimensional Squatting Kinematics in Females With and Without Patellofemoral Pain

in International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training
Melissa Doozan BS, ATC * , 1 , David M. Bazett-Jones PhD, ATC, CSCS * , 1 , and Neal R. Glaviano PhD, ATC * , 1
View More View Less
  • 1 The University of Toledo
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $192.00

Two-dimensional assessments of the lower extremity and trunk are becoming more common in the sports medicine community. However, there is little evidence evaluating expert versus novice reliability or agreement of these measurements in healthy or pathological populations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate expert versus novice reliability and agreement of two-dimensional squatting kinematics in females with and without patellofemoral pain. There was good–excellent reliability and acceptable agreement in squatting kinematics when comparing healthy and patellofemoral pain participants between the two assessors. Minimal training is required for novice assessors to measure two-dimensional squatting kinematics in healthy or pathological patients.

The authors are with the School of Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA. Glaviano is now with the University of Connecticut.

Glaviano (Neal.Glaviano@UConn.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Glaviano NR, Kew M, Hart JM, Saliba S. Demographic and epidemiological trends in patellofemoral pain. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(3):281290. PubMed ID: 26075143

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Smith BE, Selfe J, Thacker D, et al. Incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0190892. PubMed ID: 29324820 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190892

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Boling M, Padua D, Marshall S, Guskiewicz K, Pyne S, Beutler A. Gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(5):725730. PubMed ID: 19765240 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00996.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Nakagawa TH, Maciel CD, Serrao FV. Trunk biomechanics and its association with hip and knee kinematics in patients with and without patellofemoral pain. Man Ther. 2015;20(1):189193. PubMed ID: 25261089 doi:10.1016/j.math.2014.08.013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Glaviano NR, Huntsman S, Dembeck A, Hart JM, Saliba S. Improvements in kinematics, muscle activity and pain during functional tasks in females with patellofemoral pain following a single patterned electrical stimulation treatment. Clin Biomech. 2015;32:2027. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.12.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Willson JD, Davis IS. Lower extremity mechanics of females with and without patellofemoral pain across activities with progressively greater task demands. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(2):203211. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.08.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Holden S, Boreham C, Doherty C, Delahunt E. Two-dimensional knee valgus displacement as a predictor of patellofemoral pain in adolescent females. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(2):188194. PubMed ID: 26712044 doi:10.1111/sms.12633

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Boling MC, Nguyen AD, Padua DA, Cameron KL, Beutler A, Marshall SW. Gender-specific risk factor profiles for patellofemoral pain [published online ahead of print January 24, 2019]. Clin J Sport Med. doi:10.1097/jsm.0000000000000719

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Nakagawa TH, Serrao FV, Maciel CD, Powers CM. Hip and knee kinematics are associated with pain and self-reported functional status in males and females with patellofemoral pain. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(11):9971002. PubMed ID: 23771827 doi:10.1055/s-0033-1334966

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Glaviano NR, Saliba S. Association of altered frontal plane kinematics and physical activity levels in females with patellofemoral pain. Gait Posture. 2018;65:8688. PubMed ID: 30558953 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.07.164

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    King DL, Belyea BC. Reliability of using a handheld tablet and application to measure lower-extremity alignment angles. J Sport Rehabil. 2015;T24(4):2014-0195. PubMed ID: 25310432

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Dingenen B, Malfait B, Vanrenterghem J, Verschueren SM, Staes FF. The reliability and validity of the measurement of lateral trunk motion in two-dimensional video analysis during unipodal functional screening tests in elite female athletes. Phys Ther Sport. 2014;15(2):117123. PubMed ID: 23891143 doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.05.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Scholtes SA, Salsich GB. A dynamic valgus index that combines hip and knee angles: assessment of utility in females with patellofemoral pain. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(3):333340. PubMed ID: 28593087

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Munro A, Herrington L, Carolan M. Reliability of 2-dimensional video assessment of frontal-plane dynamic knee valgus during common athletic screening tasks. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21(1):711. PubMed ID: 22104115 doi:10.1123/jsr.21.1.7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Simon M, Parizek C, Earl-Boehm JE, Bazett-Jones DM. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of frontal plane knee motion in males and females: a reliability and validity study. Knee. 2018;25(6):10571064. PubMed ID: 30414788 doi:10.1016/j.knee.2018.09.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Schurr SA, Marshall AN, Resch JE, Saliba SA. Two-dimensional video analysis is comparable to 3d motion capture in lower extremity movement assessment. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(2):163172. PubMed ID: 28515970

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Lopes TJA, Ferrari D, Ioannidis J, Simic M, Micolis de Azevedo F, Pappas E. Reliability and validity of frontal plane kinematics of the trunk and lower extremity measured with 2-dimensional cameras during athletic tasks: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018;48(10):812822. PubMed ID: 29895235 doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Willson JD, Davis IS. Utility of the frontal plane projection angle in females with patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(10):606615. PubMed ID: 18827327 doi:10.2519/jospt.2008.2706

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Jones D, Tillman SM, Tofte K, et al. Observational ratings of frontal plane knee position are related to the frontal plane projection angle but not the knee abduction angle during a step-down task. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(12):973978. PubMed ID: 25366084 doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4960

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tate J, True H, Dale B, Baker C. Expert versus novice interrater and intrarater reliability of the frontal plane projection angle during a single-leg squat. Int J Athl Ther Train. 2015;20(4):2327. doi:10.1123/ijatt.2014-0116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Belyea BC, Lewis E, Gabor Z, Jackson J, King DL. Validity and intrarater reliability of 2-dimensional motion analysis using a handheld tablet compared to traditional 3-dimensional motion analysis. J Sport Rehabil. 2015;24(4). doi:10.1123/jsr.2014-0194

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Dingenen B, Barton C, Janssen T, Benoit A, Malliaras P. Test-retest reliability of two-dimensional video analysis during running. Phys Ther Sport. 2018;33:4047. PubMed ID: 30005426 doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.06.009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Herrington L, Alenezi F, Alzhrani M, Alrayani H, Jones R. The reliability and criterion validity of 2D video assessment of single leg squat and hop landing. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2017;34:8085. PubMed ID: 28437781 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2017.04.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Herrington L. Knee valgus angle during single leg squat and landing in patellofemoral pain patients and controls. Knee. 2014;21(2):514517. PubMed ID: 24380805 doi:10.1016/j.knee.2013.11.011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Crossley KM, Stefanik JJ, Selfe J, et al. 2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 1: terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient-reported outcome measures. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(14):839843. PubMed ID: 27343241 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096384

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Khuu A, Foch E, Lewis CL. Not all single leg squats are equal: a biomechanical comparison of three variations. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):201211. PubMed ID: 27104053

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Dingenen B, Staes FF, Santermans L, et al. Are two-dimensional measured frontal plane angles related to three-dimensional measured kinematic profiles during running? Phys Ther Sport. 2018;29:8492. PubMed ID: 28642097 doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2017.02.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Stensrud S, Myklebust G, Kristianslund E, Bahr R, Krosshaug T. Correlation between two-dimensional video analysis and subjective assessment in evaluating knee control among elite female team handball players. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(7):589595. PubMed ID: 21148569 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078287

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hughes T, Jones RK, Starbuck C, Picot J, Sergeant JC, Callaghan MJ. Are tibial angles measured with inertial sensors useful surrogates for frontal plane projection angles measured using 2-dimensional video analysis during single leg squat tasks? A reliability and agreement study in elite football (soccer) players. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2019;44:2130. PubMed ID: 30469107 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2018.11.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Nakagawa TH, Moriya ET, Maciel CD, Serrao FV. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(6):491501. PubMed ID: 22402604 doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3987

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Blackburn JT, Padua DA. Influence of trunk flexion on hip and knee joint kinematics during a controlled drop landing. Clinical biomechanics. 2008;23(3):313319. PubMed ID: 18037546 doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Farrokhi S, Pollard CD, Souza RB, Chen YJ, Reischl S, Powers CM. Trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(7):403409. PubMed ID: 18591759 doi:10.2519/jospt.2008.2634

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Teng HL, Powers CM. Sagittal plane trunk posture influences patellofemoral joint stress during running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(10):785792. PubMed ID: 25155651 doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5249

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Schwartz MH, Trost JP, Wervey RA. Measurement and management of errors in quantitative gait data. Gait Posture. 2004;20(2):196203. PubMed ID: 15336291 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2003.09.011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    DiCesare CA, Bates NA, Myer GD, Hewett TE. The validity of 2-dimensional measurement of trunk angle during dynamic tasks. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2014;9(4):420427. PubMed ID: 25133070

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 20
Full Text Views 19 19 19
PDF Downloads 11 11 11