Balance Error Scoring System Reliability and Validity When Performed With Ice Skates

in International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training
View More View Less
  • 1 The University of North Carolina
  • 2 McGill University
  • 3 University of Georgia
  • 4 IQVIA
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $192.00

In equipment-heavy sports, there is a growing need to evaluate players in the condition in which they participate. However, the psychometric properties of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) while wearing skates remains unknown. Seventy-four adolescent male hockey players completed the BESS with and without skates. A subset was reevaluated at the conclusion of the season. The BESS while wearing skates resulted in a mean of 15 more total errors than the traditional administration (t73 = 14.94, p < .001; ES = 1.95) and demonstrated low test-retest reliability. The BESS should be administered in the traditional manner (without skates).

Mihalik, Teel, Lynall, and Wasserman are with the Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Matthew Gfeller Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injury Research Center, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Mihalik is also with Curriculum in Human Movement Science, Department of Allied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Teel is also with the School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Lynall is also with the Concussion Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Wasserman is also with Injury Surveillance and Analytics, IQVIA, Durham, NC, USA.

Mihalik (jmihalik@email.unc.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Membership Statistics. 2015. http://www.usahockey.com/page/show/839306-membership-statistics. Accessed April 13, 2015.

  • 2.

    Hockey Program. 2015. http://www.hockeycanada.ca/en-ca/hockey-programs.aspx. Accessed April 13, 2015.

  • 3.

    Marar M, McIlvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:747755. PubMed ID: 22287642 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, et al. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 Suppl 1:i3i12. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Alla S, Sullivan SJ, McCrory P, et al. Does exercise evoke neurological symptoms in healthy subjects? J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13:2426. PubMed ID: 19231284 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Patel AV, Mihalik JP, Notebaert AJ, et al. Neuropsychological performance, postural stability, and symptoms after dehydration. J Athl Train. 2007;42:6675. PubMed ID: 17597946

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Guskiewicz KM. Balance assessment in the management of sport-related concussion. Clin Sports Med. 2011;30:89102, ix. PubMed ID: 21074084 doi:

  • 8.

    Riemann BL, Guskiewicz KM. Effects of mild head injury on postural stability as measured through clinical balance testing. J Athl Train. 2000;35:1925. PubMed ID: 16558603

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Guskiewicz KM. Postural stability assessment following concussion: one piece of the puzzle. Clin J Sport Med. 2001;11:182189. PubMed ID: 11495323 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, et al. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA. 2003;290:25562563. PubMed ID: 14625332 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Bell DR, Guskiewicz KM, Clark MA, et al. Systematic review of the balance error scoring system. Sports Health. 2011;3:287295. PubMed ID: 23016020 doi:

  • 12.

    Ross LM, Register-Mihalik JK, Mihalik JP, et al. Effects of a single-task versus a dual-task paradigm on cognition and balance in healthy subjects. J Sport Rehabil. 2011;20:296310. PubMed ID: 21828382 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Valovich McLeod TC, Barr WB, McCrea M, et al. Psychometric and measurement properties of concussion assessment tools in youth sports. J Athl Train. 2006;41:399408. PubMed ID: 17273465

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Broglio SP, Zhu W, Sopiarz K, et al. Generalizability theory analysis of balance error scoring system reliability in healthy young adults. J Athl Train. 2009;44:497502. PubMed ID: 19771288 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Concussion Evaluation and Management Protocol. 2013. http://sportsdocuments.com/nhl-protocol-for-concussion-evaluation-and-management/. Accessed April 12, 2015.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Guskiewicz KM, Ross SE, Marshall SW. Postural stability and neuropsychological deficits after concussion in collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2001;36:263273. PubMed ID: 12937495

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 143 143 12
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 5 5 2