Gender- and Age-Group Differences in the Effect of Perceived Nonverbal Communication on Communication Ability and Coaching Evaluation in Japanese Student Athletes

in International Journal of Sport Communication
View More View Less
  • 1 Sophia University
  • | 2 Tokai University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $66.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $88.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $125.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $167.00

A coach’s nonverbal communication (NC) plays a central role in the construction of the coach–athlete relationship. Moreover, perceived NC and its effect on communication ability and coaching evaluation may differ according to the athletes’ demographics. This study explored the impact of perceived NC on coaching evaluation and overall communication among different genders and age groups. The study recruited 233 athletes from five high schools and seven university teams in Japan. The coaches’ NC, communication ability, and coaching evaluations were assessed. Negative and positive NC directly influenced coaching evaluation in female athletes. Specifically, negative NC directly impacted coaching evaluation in high school athletes, whereas positive NC directly influenced coaching evaluation in university athletes. Positive NC consistently influenced communication ability regardless of demographics. The findings promote talent development and team management in the coaching context.

Shimazaki and Taniguchi are with the Dept. of Health & Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Japan. Kikkawa is with the School of Physical Education, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan.

Shimazaki (t-shimazaki-3k8@sophia.ac.jp) is corresponding author.
  • Allen, J.B., & Howe, B.L. (1998). Player ability, coach feedback, and female adolescent athletes’ perceived competence and satisfaction. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 20(3), 280299. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.3.280

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, J.C., & Gerbing, D.W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155173. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ávila, L.T.G., Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Positive social-comparative feedback enhances motor learning in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 849853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, J., Yardley, J., & Côté, J. (2003). Coach behaviors and athlete satisfaction in team and individual sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 34(3), 226239. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2003-10214-003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, A.J., & Wrisberg, C.A. (2008). Effective coaching in action: Observations of legendary collegiate basketball coach Pat Summitt. The Sport Psychologist, 22(2), 197211. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.22.2.197

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berger, C.R., & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buck, R., & VanLear, C.A. (2002). Verbal and nonverbal communication: Distinguishing symbolic, spontaneous, and pseudo-spontaneous nonverbal behavior. Journal of Communication, 52(3), 522541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02560.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bum, C.H., & Lee, K. (2016). The relationships among non-verbal communication, emotional response, satisfaction, and participation adherence behavior in sports participants. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16(Suppl. 2), 10521057. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2016.s2167

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carli, L.L., LaFleur, S.J., & Loeber, C.C. (1995). Nonverbal behavior, gender, and influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(6), 10301041. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.6.1030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chelladurai, P. (1990). Leadership in sports: A review. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21(4), 328354. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1992-00054-001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155159. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155

  • Dael, N., Mortillaro, M., & Scherer, K.R. (2012). The body action and posture coding system (BAP): Development and reliability. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 36(2), 97121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-012-0130-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, L., Jowett, S., & Tafvelin, S. (2019). Communication strategies: The fuel for quality coach-athlete relationships and athlete satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2156. PubMed ID: 31607989 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02156

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dobrescu, T. (2014). The role of non-verbal communication in the coach–athlete relationship. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 286291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.231

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte, D.F.T., Júlio, G., & Antonio, F. (2014). The efficacy of youth football coach—perception of players and coaches of different age groups of Portuguese football. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14(1), 6673. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2014.01011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedman, H.S., Prince, L.M., Riggio, R.E., & DiMatteo, M.R. (1980). Understanding and assessing nonverbal expressiveness: The affective communication test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(2), 333351. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.2.333

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2018). Body language in sport. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (4th ed., pp. 12011219). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119568124.ch59

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, A.L., & Ballif, B. (1991). Children’s understanding of emotion from facial expressions and situations: A review. Developmental Review, 11(4), 368398. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(91)90019-K

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, J.A., & Gunnery, S.D. (2013). Gender differences in nonverbal communication. In J.A. Hall & M.L. Knapp (Eds.), Handbooks of communication science: Nonverbal communication (pp. 639669). De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238150.639

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, J.A., Horgan, T.G., & Murphy, N.A. (2019). Nonverbal communication. Annual Review of Psychology, 70(1), 271294. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103145

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, J.A., & Knapp, M.L. (2013). Welcome to the Handbook of nonverbal communication. In J.A. Hall & M.L. Knapp (Eds.), Handbooks of communication science: Nonverbal communication (pp. 38). De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238150.3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hampson, R., & Jowett, S. (2014). Effects of coach leadership and coach-athlete relationship on collective efficacy. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(2), 454460. PubMed ID: 22966768 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01527.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrigan, J.A. (2013). Methodology: Coding and studying nonverbal behavior. In J.A. Hall & M.L. Knapp (Eds.), Handbooks of communication science: Nonverbal communication (pp. 3568). De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238150.35

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksen, K., Stambulova, N., & Roessler, K.K. (2010a). Holistic approach to athletic talent development environments: A successful sailing milieu. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(3), 212222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksen, K., Stambulova, N., & Roessler, K.K. (2010b). Successful talent development in track and field: Considering the role of environment. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(Suppl. 2), 122132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01187.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollembeak, J., & Amorose, A.J. (2005). Perceived coaching behaviors and college athletes’ intrinsic motivation: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17(1), 2036. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200590907540

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 5360. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7CF7R

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ishak, A.W. (2017). Communication in sports teams: A review. Communication Research Trends, 36(4), 438. http://cscc.scu.edu/trends/v36/CRT_v36_n4_December_2017.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jovanović, M., & Zdravkovi·, D. (2017). Nonverbal communication and physical education class in social context. Facta Universitatis. Series Physical Education and Sport, 15(1), 195206. http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUPhysEdSport/article/view/2663.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S., & Wylleman, P. (2006). Interpersonal relationships in sport and exercise settings: Crossing the chasm. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(2), 119123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kneidinger, L.M., Maple, T.L., & Tross, S.A. (2001). Touching behavior in sport: Functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(1), 4362. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006785107778

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., & Allen, M.S. (2016). Emotional intelligence in sport and exercise: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(8), 862874. PubMed ID: 26104015 https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12510

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen, C.H., Alfermann, D., Henriksen, K., & Christensen, M.K. (2013). Successful talent development in soccer: The characteristics of the environment. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2(3), 190206. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031958

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lim, C. (2014). Student-athletes’ evaluation of coaches’ coaching competencies and their sport achievement motivation. Review of European Studies, 6, 1729. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v6n2p17

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(3), 205222. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.7.3.205

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mageau, G.A., & Vallerand, R.J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(11), 883904. PubMed ID: 14626368 https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140374

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manley, A.J., Greenlees, I., Graydon, J., Thelwell, R., Filby, W.C.D., & Smith, M.J. (2008). Athletes’ perceived use of information sources when forming initial impressions and expectancies of a coach: An explorative study. The Sport Psychologist, 22(1), 7389. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.22.1.73

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martens, R. (1987). Coaching guide to sport psychology. Human Kinetics Publishers.

  • Martens, R. (2012). Successful coaching (4th ed.). Human Kinetics Publishers.

  • Mehrabian, A. (1968). Communication without words. Psychology Today, 2(4), 5355.

  • Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication. Routledge.

  • Mehrabian, A., & Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6(1), 109114. PubMed ID: 6032751 https://doi.org/10.1037/h0024532

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Sideridis, G. (2008). The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: Evidence for a motivational model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30(2), 240268. PubMed ID: 18490793 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.30.2.240

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myers, N.D., Feltz, D.L., Maier, K.S., Wolfe, E.W., & Reckase, M.D. (2006). Athletes’ evaluations of their head coach’s coaching competency. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(1), 111121. PubMed ID: 16646358 https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2006.10599337

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Onwuegbuzie, A.J., & Leech, N.L. (2005). On becoming a pragmatic researcher: The importance of combining quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice, 8(5), 375387. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570500402447

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poczwardowski, A., Barott, J.E., & Henschen, K.P. (2002). The athlete and coach: Their relationship and its meaning. Results of an interpretive study. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33(1), 116140. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2002-13927-008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raiola, G., & Di Tore, P.A. (2017). Motor learning in sports science: Different theoretical frameworks for different teaching methods. Sport Science, 10(1), 5056. https://www.sposci.com/PDFS/BR10S1/SVEE/04 CL 07 GR.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhind, D.J., & Jowett, S. (2010). Relationship maintenance strategies in the coach-athlete relationship: The development of the COMPASS model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 106121. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903474472

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, G.C. (1982). Achievement motivation in sport. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 10(1), 236269. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-198201000-00008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research, 8(2), 2374. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2003-08119-003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherman, C.A., Fuller, R., & Speed, H.D. (2000). Gender comparisons of preferred coaching behaviors in Australian sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23(4), 389406. https://ess22012.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/leader-mdl-gender-oz.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shimazaki, T., & Kikkawa, M. (2015). A study of nonverbal communication by coaches: Relationships between communication ability and coaching evaluation. International Journal of Sport and Health Science, 13, 4360. https://doi.org/10.5432/ijshs.201510

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Short, S.E., & Short, M.W. (2005). Essay: Role of the coach in the coach–athlete relationship. The Lancet, 366(Suppl. 1), S29S30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67836-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soyer, F., Sarı, I., & Talaghir, L.G. (2014). The relationship between perceived coaching behavior and achievement motivation: A research in football players. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152(2014), 421425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taber, K. (2017). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 12731296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanaka, Y., Kikuchi, S., Kikkawa, M., & Imamura, Y. (1996). Coaching evaluation (3): Kochingu hyoutei shakudo no kaihatsu [Construction of a coaching evaluation scale]. Proceedings in Congress of Japanese Society for Physical Education, 47, 206. https://doi.org/10.20693/jspeconf.47.0_206

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turman, P.D. (2008). Coaches’ immediacy behaviors as predictors of athletes’ perceptions of satisfaction and team cohesion. Western Journal of Communication, 72(2), 162179. https://doi.org/10.1080/10570310802038424

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Veronica, M., & Moldovan, E. (2020). Study regarding the verbal–nonverbal communication between coaches–athletes within the performance sport domain. Innovate Pedagogy, 4, 5560. https://doi.org/10.32843/2663-6085/2020/22-4.11

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (5th ed.). Human Kinetics Publishers.

  • Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J.S. (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 6881. PubMed ID: 10620382 https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, J., Jerome, G., Kenow, L., Rogers, T., Sartain, T., & Darland, G. (2003). Factor structure of the coaching behavior questionnaire and its relationship to athlete variables. The Sport Psychologist, 17(1), 1634. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.1.16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Witt, P.L., & Wheeless, L.R. (2001). An experimental study of teachers’ verbal and nonverbal immediacy and students’ affective and cognitive learning. Communication Education, 50(4), 327342. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520109379259

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 159 159 159
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 6 6 6