Being a Female Sports Journalist on Twitter: Online Harassment, Sexualization, and Hegemony

in International Journal of Sport Communication

Click name to view affiliation

Yavuz DemirInstitute of Social Sciences, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

Search for other papers by Yavuz Demir in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
and
Bünyamin AyhanDepartment of Journalism, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

Search for other papers by Bünyamin Ayhan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Online harassment toward women in social networks can occur in many forms such as contempt, profanity, insult, sexual desire, pruriency, physical threat, misogyny, and so on. Particularly, women with high social status and influence over society, such as female journalists, are more frequently exposed to online harassment. In an area such as sport, where male hegemony is dominant, female sports journalists are exposed to online harassment both in social media and in their professional lives. In modern Muslim countries such as Turkey, the controversial position of women is reflected in social media networks, and female journalists can receive harassment, as well as support. As a result of the present study, which evaluated the online harassment experienced by female sports journalists in Turkey on Twitter, as well as the subdimensions of the harassment observed using the netnographic method, it was determined that female sports journalists are frequently exposed to online harassment on Twitter. Based on the findings obtained in the present study, the most frequently received comments on Twitter by female sports journalists are derogatory and sarcastic, focusing on the physical appearance of women, exclusionary from a hegemonic perspective, and involving emotional harassment, physical threat, and profanity, respectively.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Adams, C. (2018). They go for gender first. Journalism Practice, 12(7), 850869. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2017.1350115

  • Ahmed, S. (2016). More than mean video highlights daily harassment women in sports endure. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2016/apr/28/more-than-mean-video-online-harassment-women-in-sports

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aktaş Üstün, N., & Ekin, M. (2021). Görsel spor medyasında kadınların uğradıkları siber zorbalık hakkında görüşleri. Spor ve Rekreasyon Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(1), 1523. https://doi.org/10.52272/srad.972355

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amnesty International. (2018). Toxic twitter: Women’s experiences of and abuse on twitter. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/03/online-violence-against-women-chapter-3/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Antonijevic, Z. (2016). The media cannot be truly free if women’s voices are silenced. In D. Mijatović (Ed.), New challenges to freedom of expression: Countering online abuse of female journalists (pp. 812). OSCE.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Antunovic, D. (2019). “We wouldn’t say it to their faces”: Online harassment, women sports journalists, and feminism. Feminist Media Studies, 19(3), 428442. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2018.1446454

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basmacı, G. (2020). Internet spor gazeteciliğinde kadın bedeninin temsili: Sporx gazetesi. International Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences, 4(1), 129144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binns, A. (2017). Fair game? Journalists’ experiences of abuse online. Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies, 6(2), 183206. https://doi.org/10.1386/ajms.6.2.183_1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryson, L. (1987). Sport and the maintenance of masculine hegemony. Women’s Studies International Forum, 10(4), 349360. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395(87)90052-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Büyükafşar, M. (2016). Türk spor basınında cinsiyet ayrımcılığı: Fotomaç ve Fanatik gazeteleri örneği. İnsan ve İnsan, 3(9), 5376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabbaroğlu, N. (2021). Haber servislerinde cinsiyetçi istihdam: “Işverenler önceliği erkek gazetecilere veriyor” [Interview]. https://journo.com.tr/haber-servislerinde-cinsiyetcilik-istihdam

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Çalışkan, I. (2021). Haber servislerinde cinsiyetçi istihdam: “Işverenler önceliği erkek gazetecilere veriyor” [Interview]. https://journo.com.tr/haber-servislerinde-cinsiyetcilik-istihdam

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G.M., Pain, P., Chen, V.Y., Mekelburg, M., Springer, N., & Troger, F. (2018). ‘You really have to have a thick skin’: A cross-cultural perspective on how online harassment influences female journalists. Journalism, 21(7), 877895. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918768500

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, I. (2018). Stylistic variation in Twitter trolling. In J. Golbeck (Ed.), Online harassment (pp. 151178). Springer.

  • Clifford, L. (2015). Under threat—the changing state of media safety. International News Safety Institute. https://newssafety.org/underthreat/under-threat-the-findings.html#

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coakley, J.J. (2004). Sport in society: Issues and controversies. McGrawHill.

  • Cooky, C. (2018). What’s new about sporting femininities? Female athletes and the sport-media industrial complex. In K.T. Francombe-Webb (Ed.), New sporting femininities (pp. 2341). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coşkunseda, D. (2019). Türkiye spor medyasında kadın olmak. EuroSport. https://www.eurosport.com.tr/tum-sporlar/turkiye-spor-medyasinda-kadin-olmak_sto7176017/story.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demirdağ, D. (2019). Kadın gazetecilere online taciz: Bizim utanç duvarımız. Journo. https://journo.com.tr/kadin-gazetecilere-online-taciz

  • Deprez, A., Mechant, P., & Hoebeke, T. (2013). Social media and Flemish sports reporters: A multimethod analysis of Twitter use as journalistic tool. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(2), 107119. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.6.2.107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiCaro, J. (2015). Threats. Vitriol. Hate. Ugly truth about women in sports and social media. Si. https://www.si.com/the-cauldron/2015/09/27/twitter-threats-vile-remarks-women-sports-journalists

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dinç, E.S. (2019). Türk spor medyasında kadın gazetecilere yönelik cinsiyet ayrımcılığı. Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 97112. https://doi.org/10.25307/jssr.529861

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donegan, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3(1), 3342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dorer, J., Gouma, A., & Marschik, M. (2020). Intersectionality in sports journalism. In  K. Ross, I. Bachmann, V. Cardo, S. Moorti, & M. Scarcelli (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of gender, media, and communication. Wiley Online Library. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119429128.iegmc111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eckert, S. (2018). Fighting for recognition: Online abuse of women bloggers in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. New Media and Society, 20(4), 12821302. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816688457

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Everbach, T. (2018). “I realized it was about them. . . not me”: Women sports journalists and harassment. In J.R. Vickery, & T. Everbach (Eds.), Mediating misogyny: Gender, technology, and harassment (pp. 131149). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrier, M. (2016). The progression of hate. In Attacks on the press: Gender and media freedom worldwide. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrier, M., & Garud-Patkar, N. (2018). TrollBusters: Fighting online harassment of women journalists. In J. R. Vickery, & T. Everbach (Eds.), Mediating misogyny gender, technology, and harassment (pp. 311332). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardiner, B. (2018). “It’s a terrible way to go to work:” What 70 million readers’ comments on the Guardian revealed about hostility to women and minorities online. Feminist Media Studies, 18(4), 592608. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2018.1447334

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardiner, B., Mansfield, M., Anderson, I., Holder, J., Louter, D., & Ulmanu, M. (2016). The dark side of Guardian comments. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/12/the-dark-side-of-guardian-comments

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmer, C.G., & Horky, T. (2018). Twitter and sports journalism in Germany: Application and networks during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 10(6), 6577. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMCS2017.0596

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagen, A.L. (2016). Shame, shock and speech injuries: Online harassment against journalists in Norway. In D. Mijatovic (Ed.), New challenges to freedom of expression: Countering online abuse of female journalists (pp. 1721). OSCE.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M. (2005). Stopped at the gate: Women’s sports,“reader interest,” and decision making by editors. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(1), 6277. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900508200105

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M., Dodd, J.E., & Lauffer, K. (2006). Passing it on: The reinforcement of male hegemony in sports journalism textbooks. Mass Communication & Society, 9(4), 429446. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327825mcs0904_3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M., Shain, S., & Shultz-Poniatowski, K. (2008). “There’s no sex attached to your occupation”: The revolving door for young women in sports journalism. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 17(1), 6879. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.17.1.68

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hargreaves, J. (1986). Sport, power and culture. Polity.

  • Hemsley, J. (2019). Followers retweet! The influence of middle‐level gatekeepers on the spread of political information on Twitter. Policy and Internet, 11(3), 280304. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.202

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, A.E., Bélair-Gagnon, V., Bossio, D., & Molyneux, L. (2021). “Not their fault, but their problem”: Organizational responses to the online harassment of journalists. Journalism Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2021.1946417

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, A.E., & Molyneux, L. (2015). Identity lost? The personal impact of brand journalism. Journalism, 18(2), 195210. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884915608816

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hull, K. (2016). “I love Twitter”: A case study exploring local sports broadcasters’ impressions of Twitter. International Journal of Sport Communication, 9(4), 519533. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526438256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ingham, A.G. (2004). The sportification process: A biographical analysis framed by the work of Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Freud. In R. Giulianotti (Ed.), Sport and modern social theorists (pp. 1132). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jamil, S. (2020). Suffering in silence: The resilience of Pakistan’s female journalists to combat sexual harassment, threats and discrimination. Journalism Practice, 14(2), 150170. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1725599

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaakinen, M., Oksanen, A., & Räsänen, P. (2018). Did the risk of exposure to online hate increase after the november 2015 Paris attacks? A group relations approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 9097. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.09.022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kavanagh, E., Litchfield, C., & Osborne, J. (2019). Sporting women and social media: Sexualization, misogyny, and gender-based violence in online spaces. International Journal of Sport Communication, 12(4), 552572. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.2019-0079

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kian, E.M., Fink, J.S., & Hardin, M. (2011). Examining the impact of journalists’ gender in online and newspaper tennis articles. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 20(2), 321. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.20.2.3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirby, S. (1995). Not in my backyard: Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Canadian Woman Studies, 15(4), 5862.

  • Kırlı, E.S. (2021). Spor medyasında kadınlar: Spor kimsenin tekelinde değil. [Interview]. https://www.newslabturkey.org/2021/11/25/spor-medyasinda-kadinlar-spor-kimsenin-tekelinde-degil/

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koirala, S. (2020). Female journalists’ experience of online harassment: A case study of Nepal. Media and Communication, 8(1), 4756. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i1.2541

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korkut, A.S. (2021). Haber servislerinde cinsiyetçi istihdam: “İşverenler önceliği erkek gazetecilere veriyor.” Journo. https://journo.com.tr/haber-servislerinde-cinsiyetcilik-istihdam

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kozinets, R.V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. Sage.

  • Kozinets, R.V. (2015). Netnography: Redefined. Sage.

  • Kozinets, R.V. (2020). Netnography today: A call to evolve, embrace, energize, and electrify. In R.V. Kozinets & R. Gambetti (Eds.), Netnography unlimited: Understanding technoculture using qualitative social media research (pp. 121). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lebel, K., Pegoraro, A., & Harman, A. (2019). The impact of digital culture on women in sport. In D.C. Parry, L.S. Cousineau, C.W. Johnson, & S. Fullagar (Eds.), Digital dilemmas: Transforming gender identities and power relations in everyday life (pp. 163182). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Le Vu Phung, N. (2020). The influences of misogynist online harassment on German female journalistsand their personal and professional lives (Master’s thesis, Ohio University).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, S.C., Zamith, R., & Coddington, M. (2020). Online harassment and its implications for the journalist–audience relationship. Digital Journalism, 8(8), 10471067. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1811743

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Litchfield, C., Kavanagh, E., Osborne, J., & Jones, I. (2018). Social media and the politics of gender, race and identity: The case of Serena Williams. European Journal for Sport and Society, 15(2), 154170. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2018.1452870

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McEnnis, S. (2013). Raising our game: Effects of citizen journalism on Twitter for professional identity and working practices of British sport journalists. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(4), 423433. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.6.4.423

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKenzie, A.B. (2016). In solidarity with ‘the pantyless journalist’: How journalists in the Bahamas stood up to the cyberbullies. In D. Mijatović (Ed.), New challenges to freedom of expression: Countering online abuse of female journalists (pp. 2126). OSCE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muñoz, E.L. (2014). Violence and harassment against women in the news media: The global picture. The International Women’s Media Foundation & International News Safety Institute. https://www.iwmf.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Violence-and-Harassment-against-Women-in-the-News-Media.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muñoz, E.L. (2018). Attacks and harassment. International women’s media foundation. https://www.iwmf.org/attacks-and-harassment/

  • Nölleke, D., Grimmer, C.G., & Horky, T. (2016). News Sources and follow-up communication: Facets of complementarity between sports journalism and social media. Journalism Practice, 11(4), 509526. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1125761

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NTVSpor. (2021). TFF’den Süper Lig’e kadın hakem projesi. https://www.ntvspor.net/futbol/tff-den-super-lig-e-kadin-hakem-projesi-6045e77258469611d8ad52ab

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obermaier, M., Hofbauer, M., & Reinemann, C. (2018). Journalists as targets of hate speech. How German journalists perceive the consequences for themselves and how they cope with it. SCM Studies in Communication and Media, 7(4), 499524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Özsoy, S. (2008). Türk spor medyasında kadın. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 19(4), 201219.

  • Pedersen, P.M., Whisenant, W.A., & Schneider, R.G. (2003). Using a content analysis to examine the gendering of sports newspaper personnel and their coverage. Journal of Sport Management, 17(4), 376393. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rego, R. (2018). Changing forms and platforms of misogyny: Sexual harassment of women journalists on twitter. Media Watch, 9(3), 472485. https://doi.org/10.15655/mw/2018/v9i3/49480

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarikakis, K., Kassa, B.E., Fenz, N., Goldschmitt, S., Kasser, J., & Nowotarski, L. (2021). “My haters and I ”: Personal and political responses to hate speech against female journalists in Austria. Feminist Media Studies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2021.1979068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, B., & Sheffer, M.L. (2010). An exploratory study of how Twitter is affecting sports journalism. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(2), 226239. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.3.2.226

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, B., & Sheffer, M.L. (2012). Personal branding still in future for most newspaper reporters. Newspaper Research Journal, 33(4), 6377. https://doi.org/10.1177/073953291203300406

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M. (2019). Citizen journalists, sports fans or advocates? Australian Journalism Review, 41(2), 183196. https://doi.org/10.1386/ajr_00005_1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M. (2020). Developing sport for women and girls: Media influence. In E. Sherry, & K. Rowe (Eds.), Developing sport for women and girls. Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M., Matthew, N., & Timothy, M. (2018). Women working in sport media and public relations: No advantage in a male-dominated world. Communication Research and Practice, 4(2), 102116. https://doi.org/10.1080/22041451.2017.1365176

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M., & Nicholson, M. (2012). Web 2.0 platforms and the work of newspaper sport journalists. Journalism, 14(7), 942959. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912458662

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M.L., Bandaragoda, T., Sherry, E., & Alahakoon, D. (2019). A new league, new coverage? Media International Australia, 172(1), 114130. https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X19852495

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siapera, E. (2019). Online misogyny as witch hunt: Primitive accumulation in the age of techno-capitalism. In D. Ging & E. Siapera (Eds.), Gender hate online (pp. 2143). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stahel, L., & Schoen, C. (2020). Female journalists under attack? Explaining gender differences in reactions to audiences’ attacks. New Media and Society, 22(10), 18491867. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444819885333

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tarhan, D. (2021). Kadın gazeteciler çevrim içi şiddet tehdidi altında. [Interview]. https://www.newslabturkey.org/kadin-gazeteciler-cevrim-ici-siddet-tehdidi-altinda/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TRT. (2018). Dünya kadın voleyboluna Türk damgası. TRT Spor. https://www.trtspor.com.tr/haber/voleybol/bayanlar-avrupa-kupalari/dunya-kadin-voleyboluna-turk-damgasi-173423.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Türkiye Spor Yazarları Derneği. (2021). Üyeler. https://www.tsyd.org.tr/wp/?page_id=9278

  • Twitter. (2021). Çevrimiçi taciz hakkında. https://help.twitter.com/tr/safety-and-security/cyber-bullying-and-online-abuse

  • UNESCO. (2020). JournalistsToo: 73 % of women journalists participating in UNESCO/ICFJ survey have experienced online violence in the course of their work. https://en.unesco.org/news/journaliststoo-73-women-journalists-participating-unescoicfj-survey-have-experienced-online-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uzunoğlu, S., & Karaca, H.S. (2021). Gazetecilerin Twitter ve Instagram kullanım pratikleri. NewslabTurkey. https://www.newslabturkey.org/gazetecilerin-twitter-ve-instagram-kullanimi/

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vickery, J.R., & Everbach, T. (2018). The persistence of misogyny: From the streets, to our screens, to the White House. In J. R. Vickery, & T. Everbach (Eds.), Mediating misogyny gender, technology, and harassment (pp. 127). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waisbord, S. (2020). Mob censorship: Online harassment of US journalists in times of digital hate and populism. Digital Journalism, 8(8), 10301046. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1818111

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitson, D. (1984). Sport and hegemony: On the construction of the dominant culture. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1(1), 6478. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.1.1.64

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yelkovan, B. (2021). Spor medyasında kadınlar: Spor kimsenin tekelinde değil [Interview]. NewslabTurkey. https://www.newslabturkey.org/2021/11/25/spormedyasinda-kadinlar-spor-kimsenin-tekelinde-degil/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yılmaz, E.E. (2021). Spor medyasında kadınlar: Spor kimsenin tekelinde değil. NewslabTurkey. https://www.newslabturkey.org/2021/11/25/spor-medyasinda-kadinlar-spor-kimsenin-tekelinde-degil/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yücel, H. (2021). Haber servislerinde cinsiyetçi istihdam: “İşverenler önceliği erkek gazetecilere veriyor” [Interview]. https://journo.com.tr/haber-servislerinde-cinsiyetcilik-istihdam

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1612 1612 182
Full Text Views 39 39 3
PDF Downloads 60 60 5