The Effects of Sport Organization Messaging Bias on Consumers: A Gender Focus

in International Journal of Sport Communication

Click name to view affiliation

Damien WhitburnDeakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Damien Whitburn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Chelsey TaylorSwinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Chelsey Taylor in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Paul TurnerDeakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Paul Turner in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Adam KargSwinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Adam Karg in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Little research has investigated gender bias of organization communications, effects of bias on consumer perceptions and intentions, and resulting behaviors. A data scrape of social media and website content and a member survey of Australian not-for-profit sporting organizations provided data for this study. Variances were identified in content and consumer perceptions of messaging, with this shown to be related to gender. Influence of consumer perceptions on satisfaction, relationship quality, behavioral intentions, and consumer behaviors was observed. This highlights that gender bias impacts perceptions of organizational communications, presenting a barrier to engagement. In addition, gender-balanced messaging was shown to lead to greater participation, increased consumption of media, longevity of tenure of sport membership, increased instances of engagement, and higher levels of volunteerism. As such, strategies displaying gender equity can assist organizational efficiency and effectiveness in addition to providing community and participant benefits.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Seguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2017). Social media as a relationship marketing tool in professional sport: A netnographical exploration. International Journal of Sport Communication, 10(3), 325358. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.2017-0041

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abeza, G., Pegoraro, A., Naraine, M.L., Séguin, B., & O’Reilly, N. (2014). Activating a global sport sponsorship with social media: An analysis of TOP sponsors, Twitter, and the 2014 Olympic Games. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 15(3–4), 184213. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2014.072010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Achen, R.M. (2017). Measuring social media marketing: Moving towards a relationship-marketing approach. Managing Sport and Leisure, 22(1), 3353. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2017.1379883

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayle, E., & Madella, A. (2002). Development of a taxonomy of performance for national sport organizations. European Journal of Sport Science, 2(2), 121. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390200072205

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayle, E., & Robinson, L. (2007). A framework for understanding the performance of national governing bodies of sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 249268. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740701511037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billings, A.C. (2008). Olympic media: Inside the biggest show on television (1st ed.). Routledge.

  • Billings, A.C., Angelini, J.R., & Duke, A.H. (2010). Gendered profiles of Olympic history: Sportscaster dialogue in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(1), 923. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838150903550352

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billings, A.C., & Eastman, S.T. (2002). Selective representation of gender, ethnicity, and nationality in American television coverage of the 2000 summer Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37(3–4), 351370. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269020203700302

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Churchill, G.A., Jr. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 6473. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224377901600110

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clavio, G., & Eagleman, A.N. (2011). Gender and sexually suggestive images in sports blogs. Journal of Sport Management, 25(4), 295304. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.25.4.295

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coche, R. (2016). Promoting women’s soccer through social media: How the US federation used Twitter for the 2011 World Cup. Soccer & Society, 17(1), 90108. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2014.919279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connell, R.W. (2005). Masculinities (2nd ed.). University of California Press.

  • Cooky, C., Messner, M.A., & Hextrum, R.H. (2013). Women play sport, but not on TV: A longitudinal study of televised news media. Communication & Sport, 1(3), 203230. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479513476947

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooky, C., Wachs, F.L., Messner, M., & Dworkin, S.L. (2010). It’s not about the game: Don Imus, race, class, gender and sexuality in contemporary media. Sociology of Sport Journal, 27(2), 139159. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.27.2.139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darvin, L., & Sagas, M. (2017). Objectification in sport media: Influences on a future women’s sporting event. International Journal of Sport Communication, 10(2), 178195. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSC.2017-0022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eime, R., Casey, M., & Harvey, J. (2020). Developing sport for girls and adolescents. In E. Sherry & K. Rowe (Eds.), Developing sport for women and girls (pp. 1931). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eime, R.M., Harvey, J.T., Sawyer, N.A., Craike, M.J., Symons, C.M., & Payne, W.R. (2016). Changes in sport and physical activity participation for adolescent females: A longitudinal study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 533. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3203-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eime, R.M., Young, J.A., Harvey, J.T., Charity, M.J., & Payne, W.R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: Informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 135. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-135

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fenton, A., Gillooly, L., & Vasilica, C.M. (2021). Female fans and social media: Micro-communities and the formation of social capital. European Sport Management Quarterly. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2020.1868546

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filo, K., Lock, D., & Karg, A. (2015). Sport and social media research: A review. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 166181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.11.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fink, J.S. (1998). Female athletes and the media: Strides and stalemates. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(6), 3740. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1998.10605573

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fink, J.S. (2013). Homophobia and the marketing of female athletes and women’s sport. In G.B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 4960). Center for Sport Management Research and Education Texas A&M University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fink, J.S. (2015). Female athletes, women’s sport, and the sport media commercial complex: Have we really “come a long way, baby”? Sport Management Review, 18(3), 331342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.05.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grönroos, C. (2000). Creating a relationship dialogue: Communication, interaction and value. The Marketing Review, 1(1), 514. https://doi.org/10.1362/1469347002523428

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gummesson, E. (2002). Relationship marketing in the new economy. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 1(1), 3757. https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_04

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J.F., & Anderson, R.E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • Hambrick, M.E., & Pegoraro, A. (2014). Social Sochi: Using social network analysis to investigate electronic word-of-mouth transmitted through social media communities. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 15(3), 120140. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2014.072005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M., & Greer, J.D. (2009). The influence of gender-role socialization, media use and sports participation on perceptions of gender-appropriate sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32(2), 207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hughes, D. (2020). In the frame, road map for Australian sport on an uncertain journey through COVID-19. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 23(7), 636638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.05.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hur, Y., Ko, Y.J., & Valacich, J. (2011). A structural model of the relationships between sport website quality, e-satisfaction, and e-loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 25(5), 458473. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.25.5.458

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, D. (2013). Online coverage of the 2008 Olympic games on the ABC, BBC, CBC and TVNZ. Pacific Journalism Review, 19(1), 244263. https://doi.org/10.24135/pjr.v19i1.248

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowdy, E., & McDonald, M. (2003). Relationship marketing and interactive fan festivals: The women’s United Soccer Association’s “Soccer Sensation.” International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 4(4), 1026. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-04-04-2003-B003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kane, M.J., LaVoi, N.M., & Fink, J.S. (2013). Exploring elite female athletes’ interpretations of sport media images: A window into the construction of social identity and “selling sex” in women’s sports. Communication & Sport, 1(3), 269298. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479512473585

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kian, E.M., & Clavio, G. (2011). A comparison of online media and traditional newspaper coverage of the men’s and women’s US Open tennis tournaments. Journal of Sports Media, 6(1), 5584. https://doi.org/10.1353/jsm.2011.0004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kian, E.T.M., & Anderson, E. (2009). John Amaechi: Changing the way sport reporters examine gay athletes. Journal of Homosexuality, 56(7), 799818. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918360903187788

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.K., & Trail, G.T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding relationships between sport consumers and sport organizations: A relationship quality approach. Journal of Sport Management, 25(1), 5769. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.25.1.57

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kitchen, P.J., Brignell, J., Li, T., & Jones, G.S. (2004). The emergence of IMC: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(1), 1930. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021849904040048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonagh, E., & Pappano, L. (2008). Playing with the boys: Why separate is not equal in sports. Oxford University Press.

  • Naraine, M.L., & Parent, M.M. (2017). This is how we do it: A qualitative approach to national sport organizations’ social-media implementation. International Journal of Sport Communication, 10(2), 196217. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSC.2017-0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naraine, M.L., Wear, H.T., & Whitburn, D.J. (2019). User engagement from within the Twitter community of professional sport organizations. Managing Sport and Leisure, 24(5), 275293. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2019.1630665.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neuendorf, K.A. (2002). Defining content analysis. In K.A. Neuendorf (Ed.), Content analysis guidebook (pp. 1027). Sage.

  • O’Neill, D., & Mulready, M. (2015). The invisible woman? A comparative study of women’s sports coverage in the UK national press before and after the 2012 Olympic Games. Journalism Practice, 9(5), 651668.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, S., & France, A. (2011). Comparing sports marketing of amateur team sports to professional team sports. New Zealand Journal of Applied Business Research, 9(1), 4761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowe, K., Sherry, E., & Osborne, A. (2018). Recruiting and retaining girls in table tennis: Participant and club perspectives. Sport Management Review, 21(5), 504518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2017.11.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowe, K., Shilbury, D., Ferkins, L., & Hinckson, E. (2016). Challenges for sport development: Women’s entry level cycling participation. Sport Management Review, 19(4), 417430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2015.11.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention—behavior relations: A conceptual and empirical review. European Review of Social Psychology, 12(1), 136. https://doi.org/10.1080/14792772143000003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherry, E., Osborne, A., & Nicholson, M. (2016). Images of sports women: A review. Sex Roles, 74(7), 299309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0493-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherry, E., & Taylor, C. (2019). Professional women’s sport in Australia. In N. Lough & A.N. Guerin (Eds.), Handbook of the business of women’s sport (pp. 124133). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M. (2020). Developing sport for women and girls: Media influence. In E. Sherry & K. Rowe (Eds.), Developing sport for women and girls (pp. 236247). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shilbury, D., Karg, A., Rowe, K., & Phillips, P. (2015). Sport management in Australia: An organisational overview. Routledge.

  • Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2010). “Uncool to do sport”: A focus group study of adolescent girls’ reasons for withdrawing from physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(6), 619626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparhawk, R.M. (1989). American women in sport, 1887–1987: A 100-year chronology. Scarecrow Press.

  • Sport Australia. (2019). AusPlay: Participation data for the sport sector. Summary of key national findings. Commonwealth of Australia. https://www.ausport.gov.au/__data

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sport England. (2018). Go where women are. https://www.sportengland.org/media/3285/gowherewomenare_final_01062015final.pdf

  • Sport New Zealand. (2019). Active NZ 2018 participation report. https://sportnz.org.nz/resources/active-nz-survey-2018/

  • Staurowsky, E.J., Koch, B., Dury, G., & Hayes, C. (2020). Exploring narratives of scarcity, uncertainty, and opportunity in women’s sports coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Sport Communication, 13(3), 408418. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.2020-0226

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Symons, K., Breitbarth, T., Zubcevic-Basic, N., Wilson, K., Sherry, E., & Karg, A. (2021). The (un) level playing field: Sport media during COVID-19. European Sport Management Quarterly, 22(1), 5571. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2021.1925724

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, C. (2020). Professional women’s sport leagues. In E. Sherry & K. Rowe (Eds.), Developing sport for women and girls (pp. 223235). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitburn, D., Karg A., & Turner, P. (2018). Exploring e-promotion in sport national governing bodies. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 18(5), 376401. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2018.094345

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitburn, D., Karg, A., & Turner, P. (2020). The effect of digital integrated marketing communications on not-for-profit sport consumption behaviors. Journal of Sport Management, 34(5), 417434. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winand, M., Scheerder, J., Vos, S., & Zintz, T. (2016). Do non-profit sport organizations innovate? Types and preferences of service innovation within regional sport federations. Innovation, 18(3), 289308. https://doi.org/10.1080/14479338.2016.1235985

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J., Brackbill, D., Yang, S., & Centola, D. (2015). Efficacy and causal mechanism of an online social media intervention to increase physical activity: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 651657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 961 961 118
Full Text Views 32 32 3
PDF Downloads 44 44 7