Lost in Knowledge Translation: Media Framing of Physical Activity and Sport Participation

in International Journal of Sport Communication
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

This study explored the frame-setting and frame-sending process of media who reported on the 2015 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Through the use of a case-study method employing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods approach (content analysis followed by semistructured interviews), the findings revealed a high level of frame-sending characteristics by the media, and the framing of stories was found to be influencing the message being sent, making it different from the original messaging sent by public relations practitioners charged with dispersing information. Theoretical and practical contributions are discussed along with suggestions for future studies.

Dottori is with the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Faulkner is with the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Rhodes is with the University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. O’Reilly is with the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. Vanderloo is with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Abeza is with the Towson University, Towson, MD.

O’Reilly (noreilly@uoguelph.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Active Healthy Kids Australia. (2018). The 2018 report card on physical activity for children and young people. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2E03IGp

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balyi, I., Way, R., & Higgs, C. (2013). Long-term athlete development. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Barnes, D., Cameron, C., Carson, V., Chaput, P., Faulkner, E., Janson, K., & Tremblay, S. (2016). Results from Canada’s 2016 ParticipACTION report card on physical activity for children and youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(11 Suppl. 2), S110–S116. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bickers, C. (2017, February 18). Turnbull government launches next phase of Girls Make Your Move campaign to get girls into sport. Retrieved from https://urlzs.com/PVjR

    • Export Citation
  • Borah, P. (2011). Conceptual issues in framing theory: A systematic examination of a decade’s literature. Journal of Communication, 61(2), 246–263. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brüggemann, M. (2014). Between frame setting and frame sending: How journalists contribute to news frames. Communication Theory, 24(1), 61–82. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CBC News. (2015, June 9). ParticipACTION’s prescription for healthy play: Get kids outside. CBC. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/1QlQuE4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chin, J. (2016, January 19). Postmedia layoffs to hit 90 staffers as chain consolidates newsrooms. Huffpost. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2PgcGBW

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chubb, C. (2015, June 9). By the numbers: ParticipACTION report card. CityNews. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2ICwjDe

  • Craft, A., Davis, C., & Paulson, M. (2013). Expressive writing in early breast cancer survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(2), 305–315. PubMed ID: 22494086 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vrees, H. (2005). The spiral of cynicism reconsidered. European Journal of Communication, 20(3), 283–301. doi:

  • Edwards, P. (2004). No country mouse: Thirty years of effective marketing and health communications. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95, 6–13.

  • Entman, M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58. doi:

  • Epp, P. (2014). PoV: Have we made it too easy for our kids? Woodstock Sentinel Review. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2GhnFao

  • Evans, D., Finkelstein, A., Kamerow, B., & Renaud, M. (2005). Public perceptions of childhood obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(1), 26–32. PubMed ID: 15626552 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, G., Finlay, J., & Roy, C. (2007). Get the news on physical activity research: A content analysis of physical activity research in the Canadian print media. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4(2), 180–192. PubMed ID: 17570887 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, G., Yun, L., Tremblay, M., & Spence, J. (2018). Exploring the impact of the ‘new’ ParticipACTION: Overview and introduction of the special issue. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada, 38(4), 153–161. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishman, M. (1997). News and nonevents. In D.A. Berkowitz (Ed.), Social meanings of news: A text-reader (pp. 210–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forde, S., & Wilson, B. (2018). Radical sports journalism? Reflections on ‘alternative’ approaches to covering sport-related social issues. Sociology of Sport Journal, 35(1), 66–76. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, C., Tanner, H., Kim, H., & Kim, Y. (2014). National conversations about the costs of US health care: A content analysis of media coverage, 1993–2010. Science Communication, 36(5), 519–543. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedman, B., Tanner, A., & Rose, D. (2014). Health journalists’ perceptions of their communities and implications for the delivery of health information in the news. Journal of Community Health, 39(2), 378–385. PubMed ID: 24101256 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gamson, A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992). Media images and the social construction of reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18(1), 373–393. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making & unmaking of the New Left. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gollust, E., Lantz, M., & Ubel, A. (2009). The polarizing effect of news media messages about the social determinants of health. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2160–2167. PubMed ID: 19833981 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafson, L., & Rhodes, E. (2006). Parental correlates of physical activity in children and early adolescents. Sports Medicine, 36(1), 79–97. PubMed ID: 16445312 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, W., & Linvill, L. (2010). Public health framing of news regarding childhood obesity in the United States. Health Communication, 25(8), 709–717. PubMed ID: 21153987 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinnant, A., & Len-Ríos, E. (2009). Tacit understandings of health literacy: Interview and survey research with health journalists. Science Communication, 31(1), 84–115. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinnant, A., Subramanian, R., & Jenkins, J. (2017). The media logic of health journalism: Strategies and limitations in covering social determinants. Australian Journalism Review, 39(2), 23–35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H., & Willis, L. (2007). Talking about obesity: News framing of who is responsible for causing and fixing the problem. Journal of Health Communication, 12(4), 359–376. PubMed ID: 17558788 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, N., & Weaver, J. (2015). More than a game: Sports media framing effects on attitudes, intentions, and enjoyment. Communication & Sport, 3(2), 219–242. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maclean Magazine. (2015, June 9). Canadian kids earn D minus in physical activity: Report urges adults to give kids more freedom. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2UppR4N

    • Export Citation
  • Matthes, J., & Kohring, M. (2008). The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and validity. Journal of Communication, 58(2), 258–279. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCombs, M. (2018). Setting the agenda: Mass media and public opinion. Cambridge, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

  • McKeever, B.M. (2013). From awareness to advocacy: Understanding nonprofit communication, participation, and support. Journal of Public Relations Research, 25(4), 307–328. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Physical Activity Plan. (2018). The 2018 United States report card on physical activity for children and youth. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2P68dB4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neumann, L., & Kreuger, L. (2003). Social work research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Nicholson, M., Hoye, R., & Houlihan, B. (Eds.). (2010). Participation in sport: International policy perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • ParticipACTION. (2014). The biggest risk is keeping kids indoors. 2015. The ParticipACTION report card on physical activity for children and youth. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2UHZADxPlease provide in-text citation for the reference "ParticipACTION (2014)".

    • Export Citation
  • ParticipACTION. (2018). Canadian kids need to move more to boost their brain health. 2018. PartcipACTION report card on physical activity for children and youth. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2S796is

    • Export Citation
  • Prowse, S. (2015, October). Run wild, run free: Researchers say kids need more outdoor play. Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2DpkfSf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Public Health England. (2018). Campaign resource center: Our campaigns. Retrieved from https://campaignresources.phe.gov.uk/resources/campaigns

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Reinemann, C., Stanyer, J., Scherr, S., & Legnante, G. (2012). Hard and soft news: A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings. Journalism, 13(2), 221–239. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheufele, A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49(1), 103–122. doi:

  • Scheufele, B. (2006). Frames, schemata, and news reporting. Communications-Sankt Augustin Berlin, 31(1), 65–68.

  • Scheufele, D.A., & Tewksbury, D. (2009). News framing theory and research. In J. Bryant & M.B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects (pp. 33–49). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, M., & Nicholson, M. (2017). Who controls sport news? Media relations and information subsidies in Australian sport media. Media International Australia, 165(1), 146–156. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shoemaker, P.J., Reese, S.D. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influences on mass media content (2nd ed.) White Plains, NY: Longman.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, N., Zhou, Y., & Green, C. (2017). Framing paralympic sport to build audience interest: The effects of priming on visual attention and attitudes. In B.G. Pitts & J.J. Zhang (Eds.), Global sport management: Contemporary issues and inquiries (pp. 179–191). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spence, C., Guy, F., Eun-Young, L., Tanya, B., Christine, C., Sameer, D., . . . Rhodes, E. (2018). Awareness of ParticipACTION among Canadian adults: A seven-year cross-sectional follow-up. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice, 38(4), 179–186. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tankard, J., Hendrickson, L., Silberman, J., Bliss, K., & Ghanem, S. (1991, August 7–10). Media frames: Approaches to conceptualization and measurement. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, MA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanner, H., Friedman, B., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Influences on the construction of health news: The reporting practices of local television news health journalists. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(2), 359–376. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toronto Star. (2015, June 14). Parents should set kids free to play outside: Editorial. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2W1hYEl

    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay, S., Barnes, D., & Bonne, C. (2014). Impact of active healthy kids Canada report card: A 10-year analysis. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11(Suppl. 1), S3–S20. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallington, F., Blake, K., Taylor-Clark, K., & Viswanath, K. (2010). Antecedents to agenda setting and framing in health news: An examination of priority, angle, source, and resource usage from a national survey of US health reporters and editors. Journal of Health Communication, 15(1), 76–94. PubMed ID: 20390978 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weaver, H., & Wilhoit, C. (1992). Journalists—Who are they, really? Media Studies Journal, 6(4), 63–80.

  • Weedon, G., Wilson, B., Yoon, L., & Lawson, S. (2018). Where’s all the ‘good’ sports journalism? Sports media research, the sociology of sport, and the question of quality sports reporting. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 53(6), 639–667. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weishaar, H., Dorfman, L., Freudenberg, N., Hawkins, B., Smith, K., Razum, O., & Hilton, S. (2016). Why media representations of corporations matter for public health policy: A scoping review. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 899. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 93 93 34
Full Text Views 3 3 1
PDF Downloads 4 4 0