Assessment of Physical Demands and Fluid Balance in Elite Female Handball Players During a 6-Day Competitive Tournament

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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Little data exists on drinking behavior, sweat loss, and exercise intensity across a competitive handball tournament in elite female athletes. Heart rate (HR), fluid balance and sweat electrolyte content were assessed on 17 international players across a 6-day tournament involving 5 games and 2 training sessions played indoors (23 ± 2 °C, 30 ± 2% relative humidity). Active play (effective) mean HR was 155 ± 14 bpm (80 ± 7.5% HRmax) with the majority of time (64%) spent exercising at intensities >80% HRmax. Mean (SD) sweat rates during games were 1.02 ± 0.07 L · h-1 and on 56% of occasions fluid intake matched or exceeded sweat loss. A significant relationship was observed between estimated sweat loss and fluid intake during exercise (r2 = .121, p = .001). Mean sweat sodium concentration was 38 ± 10 mmol · L-1, with significant associations observed between player sweat rates and time spent exercising at intensities >90% HRmax (r2 = .181, p = .001). Fluid and electrolyte loss appear to be work rate dependent in elite female handball players, whom appear well capable of replacing fluids lost within a tournament environment. Due to large between-athlete variations, a targeted approach may be warranted for certain players only.

Cunniffe is with the English Institute of Sport, Bisham Abbey, UK. Fallan is with the ISEH, University College, London, UK. Yau and Evans are with the School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK. Cardinale is with Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.

Address author correspondence to Brian Cunniffe at