The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200–300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (−456 ± 338 vs. −455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (−3.6 ± 3.4 vs. −3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (−3.4 ± 4.4 vs. −3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (−3.9 ± 3.5 vs. −2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (−9.7 ± 11.1 vs. −4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (−2.11 ± 3.13 vs. −1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (−2.45 ± 1.88 vs. −1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.
Khoo and, R. Y.-T. Chen are with the Dept. of Endocrinology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore. Dhamodaran is with the Dept. of Gastroenterology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore. D.-D. Chen and Yap are with Clinical Trials and Research Unit, Changi General Hospital, Singapore. Tian is with Dept. of Sports Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore.