Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $165.00

2 year subscription

USD  $215.00

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

Miller and Mull are with Milken School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Aragon is with California State University, Northridge, CA. Krieger is with Weightology LLC, Issaquah, WA. Schoenfeld is with the Dept. of Health Sciences, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY.

Address author correspondence to Brad Jon Schoenfeld at brad@workout911.com.
  • Aristizabal, J.C., Freidenreich, D.J., Volk, B.M., Kupchak, B.R., Saenz, C., Maresh, C.M., … Volek, J.S. (2015). Effect of resistance training on resting metabolic rate and its estimation by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry metabolic map. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(7), 831836. PubMed doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.216

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouchard, D.R., Soucy, L., Senechal, M., Dionne, I.J., & Brochu, M. (2009). Impact of resistance training with or without caloric restriction on physical capacity in obese older women. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 16(1), 6672. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31817dacf7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, J.E. (2015). Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: Comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18–65 years old) who are overfat, or obese; systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 14, 31. doi:10.1186/s40200-015-0154-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J.E., Blair, S.N., Jakicic, J.M., Manore, M.M., Rankin, J.W., Smith, B.K., & American College of Sports Medicine. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(2), 459471. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181949333

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, D., Belmonte, D., Deurenberg, P., Wang, Z., Krasnow, N., Pi-Sunyer, F.X., & Heymsfield, S.B. (1998). Organ-tissue mass measurement allows modeling of REE and metabolically active tissue mass. The American Journal of Physiology, 275(2 pt 1), 249258. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haskell, W.L., Lee, I.M., Pate, R.R., Powell, K.E., Blair, S.N., Franklin, B.A., … American Heart Association. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 10811093. PubMed doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185649

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helms, E.R., Zinn, C., Rowlands, D.S., & Brown, S.R. (2014). A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: A case for higher intakes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24(2), 127138. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0054

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jabekk, P.T., Moe, I.A., Meen, H.D., Tomten, S.E., & Hostmark, A.T. (2010). Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat. Nutrition & Metabolism, 7, 17. PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-17

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Josse, A.R., Atkinson, S.A., Tarnopolsky, M.A., & Phillips, S.M. (2011). Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. The Journal of Nutrition, 141(9), 16261634. PubMed doi:10.3945/jn.111.141028

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lichtman, S.W., Pisarska, K., Berman, E.R., Pestone, M., Dowling, H., Offenbacher, E., … Heymsfield, S.B. (1992). Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327(27), 18931898. PubMed doi:10.1056/NEJM199212313272701

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Longland, T.M., Oikawa, S.Y., Mitchell, C.J., Devries, M.C., & Phillips, S.M. (2016). Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: A randomized trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(3), 738746. PubMed doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.119339

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olson, T.P., Dengel, D.R., Leon, A.S., & Schmitz, K.H. (2007). Changes in inflammatory biomarkers following one-year of moderate resistance training in overweight women. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 31(6), 9961003. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803534

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stiegler, P., & Cunliffe, A. (2006). The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 36(3), 239262. doi:10.2165/00007256-200636030-00005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swift, D.L., Johannsen, N.M., Lavie, C.J., Earnest, C.P., & Church, T.S. (2014). The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 56(4), 441447. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z., Ying, Z., Bosy-Westphal, A., Zhang, J., Heller, M., Later, W., … Muller, M.J. (2011). Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: Comparison between men and women. American Journal of Human Biology, 23(3), 333338. PubMed doi:10.1002/ajhb.21137

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williamson, D.F., Kahn, H.S., Remington, P.L., & Anda, R.F. (1990). The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150(3), 665672. PubMed doi:10.1001/archinte.1990.00390150135026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willis, L.H., Slentz, C.A., Bateman, L.A., Shields, A.T., Piner, L.W., Bales, C.W., … Kraus, W.E. (2012). Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 113(12), 18311837. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01370.2011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolfe, R.R. (2006). The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(3), 475482. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2751 2634 147
Full Text Views 99 94 7
PDF Downloads 51 50 2