Sweat Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Concentrations Analyzed Same Day as Collection Versus After 7 Days Storage in a Range of Temperatures

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature on sodium ([Na+]), potassium ([K+]), and chloride ([Cl]) concentrations of sweat samples analyzed 7 days after collection. Using the absorbent patch technique, 845 sweat samples were collected from 39 subjects (32 ± 7 years, 72.9 ± 10.5 kg) during exercise. On the same day as collection (PRESTORAGE), 609 samples were analyzed for [Na+], [Cl], and [K+] by ion chromatography (IC) and 236 samples were analyzed for [Na+] using a compact ion-selective electrode (ISE). Samples were stored at one of the four conditions: −20 °C (IC, n = 138; ISE, n = 60), 8 °C (IC, n = 144; ISE, n = 59), 23 °C (IC, n = 159; ISE, n = 59), or alternating between 8 °C and 23 °C (IC, n = 168; ISE, n = 58). After 7 days in storage (POSTSTORAGE), samples were reanalyzed using the same technique as PRESTORAGE. PRESTORAGE sweat electrolyte concentrations were highly related to that of POSTSTORAGE (intraclass correlation coefficient: .945–.989, p < .001). Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) between PRESTORAGE and POSTSTORAGE were statistically, but not practically, significant for most comparisons: IC [Na+]: −0.5(0.9) to −2.1(0.9) mmol/L; IC [K+]: −0.1(0.1) to −0.2(0.1) mmol/L; IC [Cl]: −0.4(1.4) to −1.3(1.3) mmol/L; ISE [Na+]: −2.0(1.1) to 1.3(1.1) mmol/L. Based on typical error of measurement results, 95% of the time PRESTORAGE and POSTSTORAGE sweat [Na+], [K+], and [Cl] by IC analysis fell within ±7–9, ±0.6–0.7, and ±9–13 mmol/L, respectively, while sweat [Na+] by ISE was ±6 mmol/L. All conditions produced high reliability and acceptable levels of agreement in electrolyte concentrations of sweat samples analyzed on the day of collection versus after 7 days in storage.

Baker, Barnes, Sopeña, Nuccio, Reimel, and Ungaro are with the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Barrington, IL.

Address author correspondence to Lindsay B. Baker at lindsay.baker@pepsico.com.
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