Markers of Bone Health, Bone-Specific Physical Activities, Nutritional Intake, and Quality of Life of Professional Jockeys in Hong Kong

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $87.00

1 year subscription

USD $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $165.00

2 year subscription

USD $215.00

Weight-making practices, regularly engaged in by horse racing jockeys, have been suggested to impair both physiological and mental health. This study aimed to assess bone health markers, nutritional intake, bone-specific physical activity (PA) habits, and quality of life of professional jockeys in Hong Kong (n = 14), with gender-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls (n = 14). Anthropometric measurements, serum hormonal biomarkers, bone mineral density, bone-specific PA habits, nutritional intake, and quality of life were assessed in all participants. The jockey group displayed significantly lower bone mineral density at both calcanei than the control group (left: 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.63 ± 0.07 g/cm2; right: 0.51 ± 0.07 vs. 0.64 ± 0.10 g/cm2, both ps < .01). Thirteen of the 14 jockeys (93%) showed either osteopenia or osteoporosis in at least one of their calcanei. No significant difference in bone mineral density was detected for either forearm between the groups. The current bone-specific PA questionnaire score was lower in the jockey group than the control group (5.61 ± 1.82 vs. 8.27 ± 2.91, p < .05). Daily energy intake was lower in the jockeys than the controls (1,360 ± 515 vs. 1,985 ± 1,046 kcal/day, p < .01). No significant group difference was found for micronutrient intake assessed by the bone-specific food frequency questionnaire, blood hormonal markers, and quality of life scores. Our results revealed suboptimal bone conditions at calcanei and insufficient energy intake and bone-loading PAs among professional jockeys in Hong Kong compared with healthy age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched controls. Further research is warranted to examine the effect of improved bone-loading PAs and nutritional habits on the musculoskeletal health of professional jockeys.

Poon, O’Reilly, Sheridan, Cai, and Wong are with the Dept. of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Address author correspondence to Stephen Heung-Sang Wong at hsswong@cuhk.edu.hk.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Article Sections
References
  • Abu-ZidanF.M. & RaoS. (2003). Factors affecting the severity of horse-related injuries. Injury 34(12) 897900. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(03)00054-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AlfredsonH.HedbergG.BergstromE.NordstromP. & LorentzonR. (1998). High thigh muscle strength but not bone mass in young horseback-riding females. Calcified Tissue International 62(6) 497501. PubMed doi:10.1007/s002239900468

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlackD.M.CummingsS.R.GenantH.K.NevittM.C.PalermoL. & BrownerW. (1992). Axial and appendicular bone density predict fractures in older women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 7(6) 633638. PubMed doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650070607

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrownJ.P. & JosseR.G. (2002). 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal 167(10) 134. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CaulfieldM.J. & KarageorghisC.I. (2008). Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys. Journal of Sports Sciences 26(9) 877883. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410701837349

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centre for Food Safety of Hong Kong. (2010). Nutrition guideline. Hong Kong: Author.

  • ChengS.L.SuominenH.Sakari-RantalaR.LaukkanenP.AvikainenV. & HeikkinenE. (1997). Calcaneal bone mineral density predicts fracture occurrence: A five-year follow-up study in elderly people. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12(7) 10751082. PubMed doi:10.1359/jbmr.1997.12.7.1075

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CotugnaN.SniderO.S. & WindishJ. (2011). Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes. Journal of Community Health 36(2) 261264. PubMed doi:10.1007/s10900-010-9306-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CullenS.WarringtonG.DolanE. & MoranK. (2009 August). An analysis of the impact forces of different modes of exercise as a causal factor to the low bone mineral density in jockeys. Paper presented at the International Conference on Biomechanics in SportsIreland.

    • Export Citation
  • CummingsS.R.BlackD.M.NevittM.C.BrownerW.CauleyJ.EnsrudK.VogtT.M. (1993). Bone-density at various sites for prediction of hip-fractures. Lancet 341(8837) 7275. PubMed doi:10.1016/0140-6736(93)92555-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DolanE.CrabtreeN.McGoldrickA.AshleyD.T.McCaffreyN. & WarringtonG.D. (2012a). Weight regulation and bone mass: A comparison between professional jockeys, elite amateur boxers, and age, gender and BMI matched controls. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 30(2) 164170. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00774-011-0297-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DolanE.McGoldrickA.DavenportC.KelleherG.ByrneB.TormeyW.WarringtonG.D. (2012b). An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 30(5) 534542. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00774-012-0354-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DolanE.O’ConnorH.McGoldrickA.O’LoughlinG.LyonsD. & WarringtonG. (2011). Nutritional, lifestyle, and weight control practices of professional jockeys. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(8) 791799. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.560173

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreeneD.A.NaughtonG.A.JanderC.B. & CullenS.J. (2013). Bone health of apprentice jockeys using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. International Journal of Sports Medicine 34(8) 688694. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0032-1333213

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong Kong Jockey Club. (2015). Hong Kong Jockey Club 2014/15 year-end results. Retrieved from http://www.hkjc.com/english/racing/JockeyFavourite.asp?season=Previous

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong Kong Jockey Club. (2016). Hong Kong Jockey Club official website. Retrieved from http://www.hkjc.com/english/racinginfo/handicap_policy.asp

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JacksonA.S. & PollockM.L. (1978). Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. British Journal of Nutrition 40(3) 497504. PubMed doi:10.1079/BJN19780152

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KohrtW.M.BloomfieldS.A.LittleK.D.NelsonM.E.YinglingV.R. & MedA.C.S. (2004). Physical activity and bone health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 36(11) 19851996. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000142662.21767.58

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LabadariosD.KotzeJ.MombergD. & KotzeT.J.V. (1993). Jockeys and their practices in South Africa. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 7197114. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeydonM.A. & WallC. (2002). New Zealand jockeys’ dietary habits and their potential impact on health. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 12(2) 220237. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijsnem.12.2.220

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoucksA.B.KiensB. & WrightH.H. (2011). Energy availability in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 29S7S15. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.588958

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorelJ.CombeB.FranciscoJ. & BernardJ. (2001). Bone mineral density of 704 amateur sportsmen involved in different physical activities. Osteoporosis International 12(2) 152157. PubMed doi:10.1007/s001980170148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’LoughlinG.CullenS.J.McGoldrickA.O’ConnorS.BlainR.O’MalleyS. & WarringtonG.D. (2013). Using a wearable camera to increase the accuracy of dietary analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 44(3) 297301. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.11.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’ReillyJ.ChengH.L. & PoonE.T. (2016). New insights in professional horse racing; “in-race” heart rate data, elevated fracture risk, hydration, nutritional and lifestyle analysis of elite professional jockeys. Journal of Sports Sciences 3518. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1171890

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PritchardJ.M.SeechurnT. & AtkinsonS.A. (2010). A food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K: A pilot validation study. Nutrients 2(8) 805819. PubMed doi:10.3390/nu2080805

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RuedaM.A.F.HalleyW.L. & GilchristM.D. (2010). Fall and injury incidence rates of jockeys while racing in Ireland, France and Britain. Injury 41(5) 533539. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2009.05.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RupprechtM.PogodaP.BarvencikF.MunchC.PuschelK.RuegerJ.M. & AmlingM. (2007). The calcaneus as the site of manifestation for osteoporosis-associated fractures: Age- and sex-specific changes in calcaneal morphology correlate with the incidence and severity of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Der Unfallchirurg 110(3) 197204. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00113-006-1187-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SweeneyA.T.MalabananA.O.BlakeM.A.WeinbergJ.TurnerA.RayP. & HolickM.E. (2002). Bone mineral density assessment: Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements at the calcaneus, spine, and hip. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 5(1) 5762. PubMed doi:10.1385/JCD:5:1:057

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThomsenK.JepsenD.B.MatzenL.HermannA.P.MasudT. & RygJ. (2015). Is calcaneal quantitative ultrasound useful as a prescreen stratification tool for osteoporosis? Osteoporosis International 26(5) 14591475. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00198-014-3012-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VogelJ.M.WasnichR.D. & RossP.D. (1988). The clinical relevance of calcaneus bone-mineral measurements: A review. Bone and Mineral 5(1) 3558. PubMed doi:10.1016/0169-6009(88)90005-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waldron-LynchF.MurrayB.F.BradyJ.J.McKennaM.J.McGoldrickA.WarringtonG.BarragryJ.M. (2010). High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys. Osteoporosis International 21(3) 521525. doi:10.1007/s00198-009-0887-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WarringtonG.DolanE.McGoldrickA.McEvoyJ.MacManusC.GriffinM. & LyonsD. (2009). Chronic weight control impacts on physiological function and bone health in elite jockeys. Journal of Sports Sciences 27(6) 543550. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410802702863

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WasnichR.D.RossP.D.HeilbrunL.K. & VogelJ.M. (1987). Selection of the optimal skeletal site for fracture risk prediction. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 216262269. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeeksB.K. & BeckB.R. (2008). The BPAQ: A bone-specific physical activity assessment instrument. Osteoporosis International 19(11) 15671577. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0606-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeeksB.K. & BeckB.R. (2012). The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) predicts pQCT-derived tibial bone strength. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 44716724. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318237fb5f

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (1994). Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO study group. Geneva: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. The WHOQOL Group. Psychological Medicine 28(3) 551558. doi:10.1017/S0033291798006667

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonG.ChesterN.EubankM.CrightonB.DrustB.MortonJ.P. & CloseG.L. (2012). An alternative dietary strategy to make weight while improving mood, decreasing body fat, and not dehydrating: A case study of a professional jockey. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 22(3) 225231. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijsnem.22.3.225

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonG.DrustB.MortonJ.P. & CloseG.L. (2014a). Weight-making strategies in professional jockeys: Implications for physical and mental health and well-being. Sports Medicine 44(6) 785796. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0169-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonG.HawkenM.B.PooleI.SparksA.BennettS.DrustB.CloseG.L. (2014b). Rapid weight-loss impairs simulated riding performance and strength in jockeys: Implications for making-weight. Journal of Sports Sciences 32(4) 383391. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.825732

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonG.PritchardP.P.PapageorgiouC.PhillipsS.KumarP.Langan-EvansC.CloseG.L. (2015). Fasted exercise and increased dietary protein reduces body fat and improves strength in jockeys. International Journal of Sports Medicine 36(12) 10081014. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0035-1549920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonG.SparksS.A.DrustB.MortonJ.P. & CloseG.L. (2013). Assessment of energy expenditure in elite jockeys during simulated race riding and a working day: Implications for making weight. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 38(4) 415420. PubMed doi:10.1139/apnm-2012-0269

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 123 123 74
Full Text Views 8 8 5
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By