The Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Dynamic Apnea and Intermittent Sprint Performance in Elite Female Water Polo Players

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $165.00

2 year subscription

USD  $215.00

Nitrate-rich beetroot juice is thought to have ergogenic effects, particularly in conditions where oxygen availability is limited. Whether these effects also apply to elite athletes is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover manner, the Dutch National female water polo team (N = 14) was subjected to two 6-day supplementation periods (1 and 2), with either 140 ml/day of nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/day nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) beetroot juice. Following blood sampling on Day 6, the athletes performed a maximal-distance front crawl swimming test without breathing (dynamic apnea test). In addition, intermittent sprint performance was assessed by performing 16 swim sprints of 15 m, in a 4 × 4 block with 30-s recovery between blocks (intermittent test). Distance covered during the dynamic apnea test did not differ between BR (49.5 ± 7.8 m) and PLA (46.9 ± 9.1 m, p = .178). However, when correcting for test order, the distance covered was significantly larger in BR versus PLA when BR was ingested in Period 2 (50.1 ± 8.5 vs. 42.8 ± 5.7 m, p = .002), whereas no difference was observed when BR was ingested in Period 1 (48.8 ± 7.4 vs. 52.3 ± 10.4 m, p = .10). The time to complete the intermittent test was not different between BR and PLA (316.0 ± 7.9 vs. 316.3 ± 6.9 s, p = .73). In conclusion, beetroot juice supplementation does not improve intermittent performance in elite female water polo players, but there may be a potential for ergogenic effects during dynamic apnea.

Jonvik, Senden, van Loon, and Verdijk are with the NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Verdijk is also with the Dept. of Human Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Jonvik, van Dijk, and van Loon are with the Institute of Sports and Exercise Studies, HAN University of Applied Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Address author correspondence to Lex B. Verdijk at lex.verdijk@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
  • Bailey, S.J., Varnham, R.L., DiMenna, F.J., Breese, B.C., Wylie, L.J., & Jones, A.M. (2015). Inorganic nitrate supplementation improves muscle oxygenation, O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise tolerance at high but not low pedal rates. Journal of Applied Physiology, 118(11), 1396–1405. PubMed ID: 25858494 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01141.2014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batterham, A.M., & Hopkins, W.G. (2006). Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(1), 50–57. PubMed ID: 19114737 doi:10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bescos, R., Rodriguez, F.A., Iglesias, X., Ferrer, M.D., Iborra, E., & Pons, A. (2011). Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43, 1979–1986. PubMed ID: 21407132 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318217d439

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boorsma, R.K., Whitfield, J., & Spriet, L.L. (2014). Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance in Elite 1500-m runners. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(12), 2326–2334. PubMed ID: 24781895 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000364

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buck, C.L., Henry, T., Guelfi, K., Dawson, B., McNaughton, L.R., & Wallman, K. (2015). Effects of sodium phosphate and beetroot juice supplementation on repeated-sprint ability in females. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(10), 2205–2213. PubMed ID: 26077126 doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3201-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carriker, C.R., Mermier, C.M., Van Dusseldorp, T.A., Johnson, K.E., Beltz, N.M., Vaughan, R.A., … Gibson, A.L. (2016). Effect of acute dietary nitrate consumption on oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26(4), 315–322. PubMed ID: 26630309 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaister, M., Pattison, J.R., Muniz-Pumares, D., Patterson, S.D., & Foley, P. (2015). Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(1), 165–174. PubMed ID: 24978834 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000596

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Govoni, M., Jansson, E., Weitzberg, E., & Lundberg, J. (2008). The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash. Nitric Oxide, 19, 333–337. PubMed ID: 18793740 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2008.08.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, W.G., Hawley, J.A., & Burke, L.M. (1999). Design and analysis of research on sport performance enhancement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(3), 472–485. PubMed ID: 10188754 doi:10.1097/00005768-199903000-00018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A. (2014). Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Sports Medicine, 44, 35–45. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0149-y

  • Jonvik, K.L., Nyakayiru, J., Pinckaers, P.J., Senden, J.M., van Loon, L.J., & Verdijk, L.B. (2016). Nitrate-rich vegetables increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lower blood pressure in healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition, 146(5), 986–993. PubMed ID: 27075914 doi:10.3945/jn.116.229807

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krustrup, P., Mohr, M., Steensberg, A., Bencke, J., Kjaer, M., & Bangsbo, J. (2006). Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: Implications for sprint performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(6), 1165–1174. PubMed ID: 16775559 doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000222845.89262.cd

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundberg, J.O., Weitzberg, E., & Gladwin, M.T. (2008). The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 7(2), 156–167. PubMed ID: 18167491 doi:10.1038/nrd2466

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyakayiru, J., Jonvik, K.L., Trommelen, J., Pinckaers, P.J., Senden, J.M., van Loon, L.J., & Verdijk, L.B. (2017). Beetroot juice supplementation improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Nutrients, 9(3), 314. doi:10.3390/nu9030314

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patrician, A., & Schagatay, E. (2017). Dietary nitrate enhances arterial oxygen saturation after dynamic apnea. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 27(6), 622–626. PubMed ID: 27037996 doi:10.1111/sms.12684\

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peacock, O., Tjonna, A.E., James, P., Wisloff, U., Welde, B., Bohlke, N., … Sandbakk, O. (2012). Dietary nitrate does not enhance running performance in elite cross-country skiers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44, 2213–2219. PubMed ID: 22874535 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182640f48

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porcelli, S., Ramaglia, M., Bellistri, G., Pavei, G., Pugliese, L., Montorsi, M., … Marzorati, M. (2015). Aerobic fitness affects the exercise performance responses to nitrate supplementation. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1643–1651. PubMed ID: 25412295 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000577

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandbakk, S.B., Sandbakk, O., Peacock, O., James, P., Welde, B., Stokes, K., … Tjonna, A.E. (2015). Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes. Nitric Oxide, 48, 10–15. PubMed ID: 25445632 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2014.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schagatay, E. (2010). Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving, part II: Dynamic apnoea. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, 40(1), 11–22. PubMed ID: 23111834

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stamler, J.S., & Meissner, G. (2001). Physiology of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle. Physiological Reviews, 81(1), 209–237. PubMed ID: 11152758 doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, F.H., Polglaze, T., & Dawson, B. (2009). Comparison of progressive maximal swimming tests in elite female water polo players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4(2), 206–217. PubMed ID: 19567924 doi:10.1123/ijspp.4.2.206

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanner, R.K., & Gore, C.J. (2013). Physiological tests for elite athletes (2nd ed.). Perth, Australia: Australian Institute of Sports.

  • Thompson, C., Vanhatalo, A., Jell, H., Fulford, J., Carter, J., Nyman, L., … Jones, A.M. (2016). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance. Nitric Oxide, 61, 55–61. PubMed ID: 27777094 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2016.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S., Blackwell, J., DiMenna, F., Pavey, T.G., Wilkerson, D.P., … Jones, A.M. (2010). Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 299(4), 1121–1131. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00206.2010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wylie, L.J., Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Jackman, S.R., Ermiotadis, G., Kelly, J., … Jones, A.M. (2013). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113, 1673–1684. PubMed ID: 23370859 doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2589-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 138 138 25
Full Text Views 23 23 2
PDF Downloads 13 13 1