Validation of the Athlete’s Plate Nutrition Educational Tool: Phase I

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $165.00

2 year subscription

USD  $215.00

Nutrition education visual tools are designed to help the general population translate science into practice. The purpose of this study was to validate the Athlete’s Plate (AP) to ensure that it meets the current sport nutrition recommendations for athletes. Twelve registered dietitians (RDs; 10 female and 2 male) volunteered for the study. Each registered dietitian was asked to create three real and virtual plates at three different times corresponding to breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and the three different AP training loads, easy (E), moderate (M), and hard (H), divided into two weight categories (male 75 kg and female 60 kg). Data of the real and virtual plates were evaluated using Computrition software (v. 18.1; Computrition, Chatsworth, CA). Statistical analyses were conducted by SPSS (version 23.0; IBM, Armonk, NY) to compare the difference between each training load category (E, M, and H) and the recommendations. No statistically significant differences were found among the created plates and the recommendations for energy, carbohydrates, fat, and fiber for E, M, and H. Protein relative to body mass (BM) was higher than recommended for E (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg−1 BM·day−1, p = .003), M (2.3 ± 0.3 g·kg−1 BM·day−1, p < .001), and H (2.9+0.5 g·kg−1 BM·day−1, p < .001). No differences were found for the macronutrient distribution by gender when correcting for kilograms of body mass. The authors conclude that the AP meets the nutrition recommendations for athletes at different training intensities for energy, carbohydrates, fat, and fiber, but exceeds the recommendations for protein. Further research should consider this protein discrepancy and develop an AP model that meets, besides health and performance goals, contemporary guidelines for sustainability.

Reguant-Closa is with International Doctoral School, University of Andorra, Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra. Harris and Meyer are with the Beth-El College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Colorado-Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, USA. Lohman is with the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Reguant-Closa (albareguantclosa@gmail.com) is the corresponding author.
  • Abbey, E.L., Wright, C.J., & Kirkpatrick, C.M. (2017). Nutrition practices and knowledge among NCAA Division III football players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 13. PubMed ID: 28529463 doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0170-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Areta, J.L., Burke, L.M., Ross, M.L., Camera, D.M., West, D.W.D., Broad, E.M., . . . Coffey, V.G. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journal of Physiology, 591(9), 2319–2331. PubMed ID: 23459753 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2012.244897

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babault, N., Païzis, C., Deley, G., Guérin-Deremaux, L., Saniez, M.-H., Lefranc-Millot, C., & Allaert, F.A. (2015). Pea proteins oral supplementation promotes muscle thickness gains during resistance training: A double-blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled clinical trial vs. Whey protein. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 3. PubMed ID: 25628520 doi:10.1186/s12970-014-0064-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bach-Faig, A., Berry, E.M., Lairon, D., Reguant, J., Trichopoulou, A., Dernini, S., . . . Serra-Majem, L. (2011). Mediterranean diet pyramid today. Science and cultural updates. Public Health Nutrition, 14(12A), 2274–2284. PubMed ID: 22166184 doi:10.1017/S1368980011002515

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boldt, P., Knechtle, B., Nikolaidis, P., Lechleitner, C., Wirnitzer, G., Leitzmann, C., . . . Wirnitzer, K. (2018). Quality of life of female and male vegetarian and vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores—Results from the NURMI study (step 2). Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 33. PubMed ID: 30016961 doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0237-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burd, N.A., Gorissen, S.H., van Vliet, S., Snijders, T., & van Loon, L.J. (2015). Differences in postprandial protein handling after beef compared with milk ingestion during postexercise recovery: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(4), 828–836. PubMed ID: 26354539 doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.103184

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, L.M., Hawley, J.A., Wong, S.H.S., & Jeukendrup, A.E. (2011). Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(Suppl. 1), S17–S27. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.585473

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, L.M., Slater, G., Broad, E.M., Haukka, J., Modulon, S., & Hopkins, W.G. (2003). Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite Australian athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13(4), 521–538. PubMed ID: 14967874 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.13.4.521

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Computrition software (v. 18.1) [Computer software]. Hospitality suite. Chatsworth, CA: Computrition.

  • Cialdella-Kam, L., Kulpins, D., & Manore, M. (2016). Vegetarian, gluten-free, and energy restricted diets in female athletes. Sports, 4(4), 50. doi:10.3390/sports4040050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, A., & Mach, N. (2016). Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut–microbiota–brain axis and diet: A systematic review for athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 1–21. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0155-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Oliveira, E.P., Burini, R.C., & Jeukendrup, A. (2014). Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: Prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Medicine, 44(Suppl. 1), 79–85. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0153-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drenowatz, C., Eisenmann, J.C., Carlson, J.J., Pfeiffer, K.A., & Pivarnik, J.M. (2012). Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(2), 199–205. PubMed ID: 22360344 doi:10.1139/h11-155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erdman, K.A., Tunnicliffe, J., Lun, V.M., & Reimer, R.A. (2013). Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23(3), 210–219. PubMed ID: 23114732 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.23.3.210

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2016). Plates, pyramids, planets. Developments in national healthy and sustainable dietary guidelines: A state of play assessment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food Climate Research Network at The University of Oxford (FCRN). Rome, Italy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forman, A., Colby, S.E., Gellar, L., Kavanagh, K., & Spence, M. (2015). My painted plate: Art enhances nutrition education with children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(4), S57. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2015.04.152

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hector, A., & Phillips, S.M. (2017). Protein recommendations for weight loss in elite athletes: A focus on body composition and performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 32, 1–26. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0273

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM Corp Released. (2015). IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Medicine. (2005). Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/10490

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillen, J.B., Trommelen, J., Wardenaar, F.C., Brinkmans, N.Y., Versteegen, J.J., Jonvik, K.L., . . . van Loon, L.J. (2017). Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27(2), 105–114. PubMed ID: 27710150 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0154

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeukendrup, A.E. (2017). Training the gut for athletes. Sports Medicine, 47(Suppl. 1), 101–110. PubMed ID: 28332114 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0690-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juzwiak, C.R., Amancio, O.M.S., Vitalle, M.S.S., Pinheiro, M.M., & Szejnfeld, V.L. (2008). Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(11), 1209–1217. PubMed ID: 18645734 doi:10.1080/02640410801930192

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanda, A., Nakayama, K., Sanbongi, C., Nagata, M., Ikegami, S., & Itoh, H. (2016). Effects of whey, caseinate, or milk protein ingestion on muscle protein synthesis after exercise. Nutrients, 8(6), 339. doi:10.3390/nu8060339

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kromhout, D., Spaaij, C.J.K., de Goede, J., & Weggemans, R.M. (2016). The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(8), 869–878. PubMed ID: 27049034 doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.52

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loucks, A.B. (2004). Energy balance and body composition in sports and exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), 1–14. PubMed ID: 14974441 doi:10.1080/0264041031000140518

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lowery, L.M. (2004). Dietary fat and sports nutrition: A primer. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 3(3), 106–117. PubMed ID: 24482588

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macnaughton, L.S., Wardle, S.L., Witard, O.C., McGlory, C., Hamilton, D.L., Jeromson, S., . . . Tipton, K.D. (2016). The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein. Physiological Reports, 4(15), e12893. PubMed ID: 27511985 doi:10.14814/phy2.12893

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manore, M.M., Patton-Lopez, M.M., Meng, Y., & Sung Wong, S. (2017). Sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs of high school soccer players. Nutrients, 9(350), 1–14. doi:10.3390/nu9040350

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melin, A., Tornberg, Å.B., Skouby, S., Møller, S.S., Faber, J., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Sjödin, A. (2016). Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(9), 1060–1071. PubMed ID: 26148242 doi:10.1111/sms.12516

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mettler, S., Mannhart, C., & Colombani, P.C. (2009). Development and validation of a food pyramid for Swiss athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19(5), 504–518. PubMed ID: 19910652 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.19.5.504

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, D.R., Robinson, M.J., Fry, J.L., Tang, J.E., Glover, E.I., Wilkinson, S.B., . . . Phillips, S.M. (2009). Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(1), 161–168. PubMed ID: 19056590 doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26401

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noll, M., de Mendonça, C.R., de Souza Rosa, L.P., & Silveira, E.A. (2017). Determinants of eating patterns and nutrient intake among adolescent athletes: A systematic review. Nutrition Journal, 16(1), 46. PubMed ID: 28754133 doi:10.1186/s12937-017-0267-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parnell, J.A., Wiens, K.P., & Erdman, K.A. (2016). Dietary intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Nutrients, 8(9), E526. doi:10.3390/nu8090526

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pennings, B., Boirie, Y., Senden, J.M., Gijsen, A.P., Kuipers, H., & van Loon, L.J. (2011). Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(5), 997–1005. PubMed ID: 21367943 doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.008102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, S.M., Chevalier, S., & Leidy, H.J. (2016). Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: Implications for optimizing health. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(5), 565–572. PubMed ID: 26960445 doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0550

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, S.M., Tang, J.E., & Moore, D.R. (2009). The role of milk- and soy-based protein in support of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein accretion in young and elderly persons. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28(4), 343–354. PubMed ID: 20368372 doi:10.1080/07315724.2009.10718096

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, S.M., & Van Loon, L.J.C. (2011). Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(Suppl. 1), S29–S38. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.619204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Res, P.T., Groen, B., Pennings, B., Beelen, M., Wallis, G.A., Gijsen, A.P., . . . Van Loon, L.J.C. (2012). Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(8), 1560–1569. PubMed ID: 22330017 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824cc363

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowlands, D.S., Nelson, A.R., Phillips, S.M., Faulkner, J.A., Clarke, J., Burd, N.A., . . . Stellingwerff, T. (2014). Protein-leucine fed dose effects on muscle protein synthesis after endurance exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(3), 547–555. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000447

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruini, L.F., Ciati, R., Pratesi, C.A., Marino, M., Principato, L., & Vannuzzi, E. (2015). Working toward healthy and sustainable diets: The “double pyramid model” developed by the barilla center for food and nutrition to raise awareness about the environmental and nutritional impact of foods. Frontiers in Nutrition, 2, 9. PubMed ID: 25988137 doi:10.3389/fnut.2015.00009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sabaté, J., Sranacharoenpong, K., Harwatt, H., Wien, M., & Soret, S. (2014). The environmental cost of protein food choices. Public Health Nutrition, 18(11), 1–7. doi:10.1017/S1368980014002377

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spendlove, J., Mitchell, L., Gifford, J., Hackett, D., Slater, G., Cobley, S., & O’Connor, H. (2015). Dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. Sports Medicine, 45(7), 1041–1063. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0329-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stellingwerff, T., Maughan, R.J., & Burke, L.M. (2011). Nutrition for power sports: Middle-distance running, track cycling, rowing, canoeing/kayaking, and swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(Suppl. 1), 37–41. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.589469

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A., & Burke, L.M. (2016). Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(3), 543–568. PubMed ID: 26891166 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000852

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2015). 2015–2020 dietary guidelines for Americans (8th ed.). Retrieved from http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Vliet, S., Burd, N.A., & van Loon, L.J. (2015). The skeletal muscle anabolic response to plant- versus animal-based protein consumption. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(9), 1981–1991. PubMed ID: 26224750 doi:10.3945/jn.114.204305

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viner, R.T., Harris, M., Berning, J.R., & Meyer, N.L. (2015). Energy availability and dietary patterns of adult male and female competitive cyclists with lower than expected bone mineral density. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(6), 594–602. PubMed ID: 26131616 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0073

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitehouse, G., & Lawlis, T. (2017). Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use. Nutrition & Dietetics, 74(5), 509–515. PubMed ID: 28748643 doi:10.1111/1747-0080.12367

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willett, W., Rockström, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., . . . Murray, C.J.L. (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: The EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet, 393(10170), 447–492. PubMed ID: 30660336 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 375 375 357
Full Text Views 31 31 21
PDF Downloads 16 16 10