Influence of Peak Menstrual Cycle Hormonal Changes on Restoration of Fluid Balance After Induced Dehydration

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $165.00

2 year subscription

USD  $215.00

The present study examined the impact of hormonal differences between late follicular (LF) and midluteal (ML) phases on restoration of fluid balance following dehydration. Ten eumenorrheic female participants were dehydrated by 2% of their body mass through overnight fluid restriction followed by exercise-heat stress. Trials were undertaken during the LF (between Days 10 and 13 of the menstrual cycle) and ML phases (between Days 18 and 23 of the menstrual cycle) with one phase repeated to assess reliability of observations. Following dehydration, participants ingested a volume equivalent to 100% of mass loss of a commercially available sports drink in four equal volumes over 30 min. Mean serum values for steroid hormones during the ML (estradiol [E2]: 92 ± 11 pg/ml, progesterone: 19 ± 4 ng/ml) and LF (estradiol [E2]: 232 ± 64 pg/ml, progesterone: 3 ± 2 ng/ml) were significantly different between phases. Urine tests confirmed no luteinizing hormone surge evident during LF trials. There was no effect of menstrual cycle phase on cumulative urine volume during the 3-hr rehydration period (ML: 630 [197–935] ml, LF: 649 [180–845] ml) with percentage of fluid retained being 47% (33–85)% on ML and 46% (37–89)% on LF (p = .29). There was no association between the progesterone:estradiol ratio and fluid retained in either phase. Net fluid balance, urine osmolality, and thirst intensity were not different between phases. No differences in sodium (ML: −61 [−36 to −131] mmol, LF: −73 [−5 to −118] mmol; p = .45) or potassium (ML: −36 [−11 to −80] mmol, LF: −30 [−19 to −89] mmol; p = .96) balance were observed. Fluid replacement after dehydration does not appear to be affected by normal hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic young women.

The authors are with Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

Galloway (s.d.r.galloway@stir.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Bäckstrom, T., Wide, L., Södergärd, R., & Carstensen, H. (1976). FSH, LH, TeBG-capacity, estrogen and progesterone in women with premenstrual tension during the luteal phase. Journal of Steroid Biochemestry, 7(6–7), 473–476. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(76)90115-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, E.R. (1981). Menstrual dysfunction and hormonal status in athletic women: A review. Fertility and Sterility, 36(6), 691–696. PubMed ID: 7030795 doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(16)45908-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calzone, W.L., Silva, C., Keefe, D.L., & Stachenfeld, N.S. (2001). Progesterone does not alter osmotic regulation of AVP. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(6), R2011–R2020. PubMed ID: 11705788 doi:10.1152/ajpregu.2001.281.6.R2011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claybaugh, J.R., Sato, A.K., Crosswhite, L.K., & Hassell, L.H. (2000). Effects of time of day, gender, and menstrual cycle phase on the human response to a water load. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279(3), R966–R973. PubMed ID: 10956255 doi:10.1152/ajpregu.2000.279.3.R966

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elgindy, D.A. (2011). Progesterone level and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of hCG administration: Detrimental cutoff levels and new treatment strategy. Fertility and Sterility, 95(5), 1639–1644. PubMed ID: 21324450 doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.12.065

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliot-Sale, K.J., Smith, S., Bacon, J., Clayton, D., McPhilimey, M., Goutianos, G., . . . Sale, C. (2013). Examining the role of oral contraceptive users as an experimental and/or control group in athletic performance studies. Contraception, 88(3), 408–412. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.11.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, G.H., James, L.J., Shirreffs, S.M., & Maughan, R.J. (2017). Optimizing the restoration and maintenance of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(4), 945–951. PubMed ID: 28126906 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00745.2016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fong, A.K., & Kretsch, M.J. (1993). Changes in dietary intake, urinary nitrogen, and urinary volume across the menstrual cycle. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(1), 43–46. PubMed ID: 8416663 doi:10.1093/ajcn/57.1.43

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forsling, M.L., Akerlund, M., & Stromberg, P. (1981). Variations in plasma concentrations of vasopressin during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Endocrinology, 89(2), 263–266. PubMed ID: 7241012 doi:10.1677/joe.0.0890263

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forsyth, J.J., & Roberts, C.M. (Eds.). (2018). The exercising female: science and its application (pp. 30–43). Oxford, UK: Routledge.

  • Fortney, S.M. (1996). Hormonal control of fluid balance in women during exercise. In E.R. Buskirk& S.M. Puhl (Eds.), Body fluid balance: Exercise and sport (pp. 231–258). Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, W.G., Marshall, S.W., Batterham, A.M., & Janin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 3–13. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maughan, R.J., & Leiper, J.B. (1995). Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 71(4), 311–319. doi:10.1007/BF00240410

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maughan, R.J., Leiper, L.B., & Shirreffs, S.M. (1997). Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(3), 175–182. PubMed ID: 9298549 doi:10.1136/bjsm.31.3.175

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maughan, R.J., McArthur, M., & Shirreffs, S.M. (1996). Influence of menstrual status on fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration in healthy young women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(1), 41–47. PubMed ID: 8665117 doi:10.1136/bjsm.30.1.41

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ormerod, J.K. (2011). The effect of menstrual cycle on fluid intake during exercise in the heat (PhD thesis). Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patterson, M.J., Galloway, S.D., & Nimmo, M.A. (2000). Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males. Experimental Physiology, 85(6), 869–875. doi:10.1111/j.1469-445X.2000.02058.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shirreffs, S.M., Armstrong, L.E., & Cheuvront, S.N. (2004). Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), 57–63. PubMed ID: 14971433 doi:10.1080/0264041031000140572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shirreffs, S.M., & Maughan, R.J. (2000). Rehydration and recovery of fluid balance after exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 28(1), 27–32. PubMed ID: 11131686

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shirreffs, S.M., Taylor, A.J., Leiper, J.B., & Maughan, R.J. (1996). Post-exercise rehydration in man: Effects of volume consumed and drink sodium content. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28(10), 1260–1271. PubMed ID: 8897383 doi:10.1097/00005768-199610000-00009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spruce, B.A., Baylis, P.H., Burd, J., & Watson, M.J. (1985). Variation in osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin during the human menstrual cycle. Clinical Endocrinology, 22(1), 37–42. PubMed ID: 3978827 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.1985.tb01062.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stachenfeld, N.S. (2008). Sex hormone effects on body fluid regulation. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 36(3), 152–159. PubMed ID: 18580296 doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e31817be928

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stachenfeld, N.S. (2009). Dehydration and estrogen. ACSM Current Comment. Indianapolis, IN: American College of Sport Medicine. Retrieved from http://blogs.umass.edu/bodyshop/files/2009/07/dehydrationandoestrogen.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stachenfeld, N.S., & Keefe, D.L. (2002). Estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of AVP and fluid balance. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(4), E711–E721. PubMed ID: 12217888 doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00192.2002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stachenfeld, N.S., Silva, C.S., Keefe, D.L., Kokoszka, C.A., & Nadel, E.R. (1999). Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(3), 1016–1025. doi:10.1152/jappl.1999.87.3.1016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stachenfeld, N.S., Taylor, H.S., Leone, C.A., & Keefe, D.L. (2003). Oestrogen effects on urine concentrating response in young women. Journal of Physiology, 552(Pt 3), 869–880. PubMed ID: 12923212 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2003.046920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vokes, T.J., Weiss, N.M., Schreiber, J., Gaskill, M.B., & Robertson, G.L. (1988). Osmoregulation of thirst and vasopressin during normal menstrual cycle. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 254(4 Pt 2), R641–R647. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1988.254.4.R641

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yasuda, N., Kawal, Y., Hara, A., Iide, K., & Matsamura, T. (2013). Evaluation of menstrual cycle phase in hydration status based on urine specific gravity following basketball training. Bulletin of The International Pacific University, 20, 1–5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 413 413 344
Full Text Views 24 24 10
PDF Downloads 21 21 12