Mixed Flavonoid Supplementation Attenuates Postexercise Plasma Levels of 4-Hydroxynonenal and Protein Carbonyls in Endurance Athletes

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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This double-blinded, placebo controlled, randomized crossover trial investigated the influence of 2-week mixed flavonoid versus placebo supplementation on oxinflammation markers after a 75-km cycling time trial in 22 cyclists (42.3 ± 1.7 years). Blood samples were collected before and after the 2-week supplementation, and then 0 hr, 1.5 hr, and 21 hr post 75-km cycling (176 ± 5.4 min, 73.4 ±2.0% maximal oxygen consumption). The supplement provided 678-mg flavonoids with quercetin (200 mg), green tea catechins (368 mg, 180-mg epigallocatechin gallate), and anthocyanins (128 mg) from bilberry extract, with caffeine, vitamin C, and omega-3 fatty acids added as adjuvants. Blood samples were analyzed for blood leukocyte counts, oxinflammation biomarkers, including 4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyls, and peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 and glutathione peroxidase. Each of the blood biomarkers was elevated postexercise (time effects, all ps < .01), with lower plasma levels for 4-hydroxynonenal (at 21-hr postexercise) in flavonoid versus placebo (interaction effect, p = .008). Although elevated postexercise, no trial differences for the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (p = .539) or peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 (p = .322) or glutathione peroxidase (p = .839) were shown. Flavonoid supplementation prior to intensive exercise decreased plasma peroxidation and oxidative damage, as determined by 4-hydroxynonenal. Postexercise increases were similar between the flavonoid and placebo trials for peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 related gene glutathione peroxidase (NFE2L2). The data support the strategy of flavonoid supplementation to mitigate postexercise oxidative stress in endurance athletes.

Nieman and Simonson are with the Human Performance Laboratory, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA. Valacchi, Ferrara, Pecorelli, and Woodby are with the Department of Animal Sciences, Plants for Human Health Institute, NC State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA. Valacchi and Ferrara are also with the Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Valacchi is also with the Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea. Wentz is with the Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA. Sakaguchi is with the Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.

Nieman (niemandc@appstate.edu) is corresponding author.
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