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In the present study, our team aimed to investigate the effects of acute ingestion of a ketone salt (KS) supplement on the cognitive performance in healthy college-aged males during a dual-stress challenge (DSC). Following a peak oxygen uptake test and DSC familiarization, 16 males completed a DSC while cycling at 60% of their respective peak oxygen uptake after ingesting either a commercially available racemic (D- and L-)β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) KS (0.38 g/kg body mass) or a placebo, using a triple-blinded, crossover, and counterbalanced design. The participants consumed the KS or placebo at −60 and −15 min prior to the start of the DSC. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood β-OHB and glucose were sampled throughout. The DSC consisted of a mental arithmetic challenge and a modified Stroop Color Word, which alternated every 2 min for 20 min. Upon completion of the DSC, responses for correct, incorrect, and no responses were recorded for the mental arithmetic challenge and Stroop Color Word. Blood β-OHB was elevated with KS by −15 min and remained so throughout (p < .001), peaking at 0.76 ± 0.32 mM. Blood glucose was lower with KS compared with the placebo at −15 and 10 min by 9% and 5%, respectively (both ps < .05). There were no differences between the treatments for heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, mental arithmetic challenge, or Stroop Color Word. Overall, this study suggests that KSs are not effective aids for enhancing cognitive performance during a DSC, which might partially be explained by the inability of currently available commercial KS supplements to elevate β-OHB blood concentrations above ∼1.0 mM.
Waldman is with the Human Performance Lab, Department of Kinesiology, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL. Waldman and Shepherd are with the Applied Physiology Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. Egan is with the School of Health & Human Performance, National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. McAllister is with the Metabolic & Applied Physiology Lab, Department of Health and Human Performance, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX.