The Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Markers of Muscle Damage Following Exercise in Active Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $88.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $118.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $168.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $224.00

Purpose: This study examined whether a higher protein diet following strenuous exercise can alter markers of muscle damage and inflammation in older adults. Methods: Using a double-blind, independent group design, 10 males and eight females (age 57 ± 4 years; mass 72.3 ± 5.6 kg; height 1.7 ± 6.5 m) were supplied with a higher protein (2.50 g·kg−1·day−1) or moderate protein (1.25 g·kg−1·day−1) diet for 48 hr after 140 squats with 25% of their body mass. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, muscle soreness, creatine kinase, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted, and inflammatory markers were measured preexercise, and 24 hr and 48 hr postexercise. Results: The maximal isometric voluntary contractions decreased postexercise (p = .001, ηp2=.421), but did not differ between groups (p = .822, ηp2=.012). Muscle soreness peaked at 24 hr post in moderate protein (44 ± 30 mm) and 48 hr post in higher protein (70 ± 46 mm; p = .005; ηp2=.282); however, no group differences were found (p = .585; ηp2=.083). Monocytes and lymphocytes significantly decreased postexercise, and eosinophils increased 24 hr postexercise (p < 0.05), but neutrophils, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted were unchanged by exercise or the intervention (p > .05). Conclusion: In conclusion, 2.50 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein is not more effective than 1.25 g·kg−1·day−1 for attenuating indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation following strenuous exercise in older adults.

Clifford, Hayes, Scragg, Taylor, Smith, Bowden Davies, and Stevenson are with the Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom. Clifford is also with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Clifford (t.clifford@lboro.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material (PDF 256 KB)
  • Abbott, W., Brett, A., Cockburn, E., & Clifford, T. (2019). Presleep casein protein ingestion: Acceleration of functional recovery in professional soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14(3), 385391. PubMed ID: 30204517 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0385

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, P.G., Stevenson, E., Davison, G.W., & Howatson, G. (2016). The effects of montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients, 8(7), 441. PubMed ID: 27455316 doi: 10.3390/nu8070441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brisswalter, J., & Nosaka, K. (2013). Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes. Sports Medicine, 43(1), 5163. PubMed ID: 23315756 doi:10.1007/s40279-012-0006-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calder, P.C., Bosco, N., Bourdet-Sicard, R., Capuron, L., Delzenne, N., Doré, J., … Visioli, F. (2017). Health relevance of the modification of low grade inflammation in ageing (inflammageing) and the role of nutrition. Ageing Research Reviews, 40, 95119. PubMed ID: 28899766 doi:10.1016/j.arr.2017.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarkson, P.M., & Sayers, S.P. (1999). Etiology of exercise-induced muscle damage. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 24(3), 234248. PubMed ID: 10364418 doi:10.1139/h99-020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clifford, T., Allerton, D.M., Brown, M.A., Harper, L., Horsburgh, S., Keane, K.M., … Howatson, G. (2017). Minimal muscle damage after a marathon and no influence of beetroot juice on inflammation and recovery. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 42(3), 263270. PubMed ID: 28165768 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0525

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cruz-Jentoft, A.J., Baeyens, J.P., Bauer, J.M., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Landi, F., … Zamboni, M. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older people. Age and Ageing, 39(4), 412423. PubMed ID: 20392703 doi:10.1093/ageing/afq034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doering, T.M., Jenkins, D.G., Reaburn, P.R., Borges, N.R., Hohmann, E., & Phillips, S.M. (2016). Lower integrated muscle protein synthesis in masters compared with younger athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(8), 16131618. PubMed ID: 27433963 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000935

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doering, T.M., Reaburn, P.R., Borges, N.R., Cox, G.R., & Jenkins, D.G. (2017). The effect of higher than recommended protein feedings post-exercise on recovery following downhill running in masters triathletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27(1), 7682. PubMed ID: 27284754 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0079

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doering, T.M., Reaburn, P.R., Phillips, S.M., & Jenkins, D.G. (2016). Postexercise dietary protein strategies to maximize skeletal muscle repair and remodeling in masters endurance athletes: A review. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26(2), 168178. PubMed ID: 26402439 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Easthope, C.S., Hausswirth, C., Louis, J., Lepers, R., Vercruyssen, F., & Brisswalter, J. (2010). Effects of a trail running competition on muscular performance and efficiency in well-trained young and master athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(6), 11071116. PubMed ID: 20703499 doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1597-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farup, J., Rahbek, S.K., Knudsen, I.S., De Paoli, F., Mackey, A.L., & Vissing, K. (2014). Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise. Amino Acids, 46(11), 25032516. PubMed ID: 25063205 doi:10.1007/s00726-014-1810-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyldahl, R.D., & Hubal, M.J. (2014). Lengthening our perspective: Morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to eccentric exercise. Muscle and Nerve. 49(2), 155170. PubMed ID: 24030935 doi:10.1002/mus.24077

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamandulis, S., De Souza Leite, F., Hernánez, A., Katz, A., Brazaitis, M., Bruton, J.D., … Westerblad, H. (2017). Prolonged force depression after mechanically demanding contractions is largely independent of Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. FASEB Journal, 31(11), 48094820. PubMed ID: 28716970 doi:10.1096/fj.201700019R

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kato, H., Miura, K., Nakano, S., Suzuki, K., Bannai, M., & Inoue, Y. (2016). Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate inflammation in rat muscle and enhance muscle repair after eccentric contraction. Amino Acids, 48(9), 21452155. PubMed ID: 27168073 doi:10.1007/s00726-016-2240-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katsanos, C.S., Kobayashi, H., Sheffield-Moore, M., Aarsland, A., & Wolfe, R.R. (2006). A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(2):E381E387. PubMed ID: 16507602 doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00488.2005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerasioti, E., Stagos, D., Jamurtas, A., Kiskini, A., Koutedakis, Y., Goutzourelas, N., … Kouretas, D. (2013). Anti-inflammatory effects of a special carbohydrate-whey protein cake after exhaustive cycling in humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 61, 4246. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavender, A.P., & Nosaka, K. (2006). Responses of old men to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors in comparison with young men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(5), 619626. PubMed ID: 16767435 doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0224-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lovering, R.M., & Brooks, S.V. (2014). Eccentric exercise in aging and diseased skeletal muscle: Good or bad? Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(11), 14391445. PubMed ID: 23471953 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minor, B.D., Heusinger, D.E., Melanson, E.L., Hamilton, K.L., & Miller, B.F. (2012). Energy balance changes the anabolic effect of postexercise feeding in older individuals. Journals of Gerontology–Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 67(11), 11611169. PubMed ID: 22459620 doi:10.1093/gerona/gls080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, D.R., Churchward-Venne, T.A., Witard, O., Breen, L., Burd, N.A., Tipton, K.D., & Phillips, S.M. (2015). Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 70(1), 5762 doi:10.1093/gerona/glu103

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Owens, D.J., Twist, C., Cobley, J.N., Howatson, G., & Close, G.L. (2019). Exercise-induced muscle damage: What is it, what causes it and what are the nutritional solutions? European Journal of Sport Science, 19(1), 7185. PubMed ID: 30110239 doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.1505957

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pasiakos, S.M., Lieberman, H.R., & McLellan, T.M. (2014). Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 44(5), 655670. PubMed ID: 24435468 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0137-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paulsen, G., Mikkelsen, U.R., Raastad, T., & Peake, J.M. (2012). Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: What role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise? Exercise Immunology Review, 18, 4297. PubMed ID: 22876722

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ploutz-Snyder, L.L., Giamis, E.L., Formikell, M., & Rosenbaum, A.E. (2001). Resistance training reduces susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle dysfunction in older women. Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(1), B384B390. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.9.B384

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowlands, D.S., Nelson, A.R., Raymond, F., Metairon, S., Mansourian, R., Clarke, J., … Phillips, S.M. (2016). Protein-leucine ingestion activates a regenerative inflammo-myogenic transcriptome in skeletal muscle following intense endurance exercise. Physiological Genomics, 48(1), 2132. PubMed ID: 26508702 doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00068.2015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shearer, D.A., Sparkes, W., Northeast, J., Cunningham, D.J., Cook, C.J., & Kilduff, L.P. (2017). Measuring recovery: An adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) compared to biochemical and power output alterations. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(5), 512517. PubMed ID: 27751660 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., … Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 20(3), 236244. PubMed ID: 20601741 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.20.3.236

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warren, G.L., Ingalls, C.P., Lowe, D.A., & Armstrong, R.B. (2002). What mechanisms contribute to the strength loss that occurs during and in the recovery from skeletal muscle injury? Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 32(2), 5864. PubMed ID: 11838581 doi:10.2519/jospt.2002.32.2.58

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 757 757 92
Full Text Views 85 85 11
PDF Downloads 33 33 2