Influence of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance at Different Doses of Normobaric Hypoxia in Endurance-Trained Males

Click name to view affiliation

George P. Robinson Loughborough University

Search for other papers by George P. Robinson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Sophie C. Killer Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Sophie C. Killer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Zdravko Stoyanov Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Zdravko Stoyanov in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Harri Stephens Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Harri Stephens in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Luke Read Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Luke Read in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Lewis J. James Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Lewis J. James in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
, and
Stephen J. Bailey Loughborough University

Search for other papers by Stephen J. Bailey in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
Restricted access

This study investigated whether supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) can improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in trained males in normoxia and different doses of normobaric hypoxia. Eight endurance-trained males (V˙O2peak, 62 ± 6 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed repeated 90 s intervals at 110% of peak treadmill velocity, from an initial step incremental test, interspersed by 60 s of passive recovery until exhaustion (Tlim). Participants completed the first three experimental trials during days 3, 5, and 7 of BR or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA) supplementation and completed the remaining experimental visits on the alternative supplement following at least 7 days of washout. The fraction of inspired oxygen during visits 1–3 was either 0.209, 0.182, or 0.157, equivalent to an altitude of 0, 1,200, and 2,400 m, respectively, and this order was replicated on visits 4–6. Arterial oxygen saturation declined dose dependently as fraction of inspired oxygen was lowered (p < .05). Plasma nitrite concentration was higher pre- and postexercise after BR compared with PLA supplementation (p < .05). There was no difference in Tlim between PLA and BR at 0 m (445 [324, 508] and 410 [368, 548] s); 1,200 m (341 [270, 390] and 332 [314, 356] s); or 2,400 m (233 [177, 373] and 251 [221, 323] s) (median and [interquartile range]; p > .05). The findings from this study suggest that short-term BR supplementation does not improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in endurance-trained males in normoxia or at doses of normobaric hypoxia that correspond to altitudes at which athletes typically train while on altitude training camps.

The authors are with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.

Bailey (S.Bailey2@lboro.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Arnold, J.T., Oliver, S.J., Lewis-Jones, T.M., Wylie, L.J., & Macdonald, J.H. (2015). Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 40(6), 590595. doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0470

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aucouturier, J., Boissière, J., Pawlak-Chaouch, M., Cuvelier, G., & Gamelin, F.X. (2015). Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on tolerance to supramaximal intensity intermittent exercise. Nitric Oxide, 49, 1625. PubMed ID: 26028570 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2015.05.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, S.J., Winyard, P., Vanhatalo, A., Blackwell, J.R., Dimenna, F.J., Wilkerson, D.P., … Jones, A.M. (2009). Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(4), 11441155. PubMed ID: 19661447 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bescós, R., Ferrer-Roca, V., Galilea, P.A., Roig, A., Drobnic, F., Sureda, A., … Pons, A. (2012). Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(12), 24002409. PubMed ID: 22811030 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182687e5c

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bond, H., Morton, L., & Braakhuis, A.J. (2012). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves rowing performance in well-trained rowers. International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(4), 251256. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.22.4.251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boorsma, R.K., Whitfield, J., & Spriet, L.L. (2014). Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance of elite 1500-m runners. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(12), 23262334. PubMed ID: 24781895 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000364

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bosquet, L., Duchene, A., Dupont, G., Leger, L., & Carter, H. (2007). VO2 kinetics during supramaximal exercise: Relationship with oxygen deficit and 800-m running performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(6), 518524. PubMed ID: 17357962 doi:10.1055/s-2006-955896

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourdillon, N., Fan, J.L., Uva, B., Müller, H., Meyer, P., & Kayser, B. (2015). Effect of oral nitrate supplementation on pulmonary hemodynamics during exercise and time trial performance in normoxia and hypoxia: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Physiology, 6, 288. PubMed ID: 26528189 doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00288

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cermak, N.M., Gibala, M.J., & van Loon, L.J. (2012). Nitrate supplementation’s improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(1), 6471. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.22.1.64

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chapman, R.F., Karlsen, T., Resaland, G.K., Ge, R.L., Harber, M.P., Witkowski, S., … Levine, B.D. (2014). Defining the “dose” of altitude training: How high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(6), 595603. PubMed ID: 24157530 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00634.2013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, P.M., Nyberg, M., & Bangsbo, J. (2013). Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO2 kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(1), e21e31. PubMed ID: 23020760 doi:10.1111/sms.12005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocksedge, S.P., Breese, B.C., Morgan, P.T., Nogueira, L., Thompson, C., Wylie, L.J., … Bailey, S.J. (2020). Influence of muscle oxygenation and nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation on O2 uptake kinetics and exercise tolerance. Nitric Oxide, 99, 2533. PubMed ID: 32272260 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2020.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodall, S., Ross, E.Z., & Romer, L.M. (2010). Effect of graded hypoxia on supraspinal contributions to fatigue with unilateral knee-extensor contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(6), 18421851. PubMed ID: 20813979 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00458.2010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.M., Ferguson, S.K., Bailey, S.J., Vanhatalo, A., & Poole, D.C. (2016). Fiber type-specific effects of dietary nitrate. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 44(2), 5360. PubMed ID: 26829247 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.M., Thompson, C., Wylie, L.J., & Vanhatalo, A. (2018). Dietary nitrate and physical performance. Annual Review of Nutrition, 38(1), 303328. PubMed ID: 30130468 doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051622

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, J., Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S.J., Wylie, L.J., Tucker, C., List, S., … Jones, A.M. (2014). Dietary nitrate supplementation: Effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 307(7), R920R930. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00068.2014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kent, G.L., Dawson, B., McNaughton, L.R., Cox, G.R., Burke, L.M., & Peeling, P. (2019). The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on repeat-sprint performance in hypoxia. Journal of Sports Science, 37(3), 339346. doi:10.1080/02640414.2018.1504369

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacLeod KE, Nugent SF, Barr SI, Koehle MS, Sporer BC, & MacInnis MJ. (2015). Acute beetroot juice supplementation does not improve cycling performance in normoxia or moderate hypoxia. International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(4), 359366. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masschelein, E., Van Thienen, R., Wang, X., Van Schepdael, A., Thomis, M., & Hespel, P. (2012). Dietary nitrate improves muscle but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in hypoxia. Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(5), 736745. PubMed ID: 22773768 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01253.2011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muggeridge, D.J., Howe, C.C., Spendiff, O., Pedlar, C., James, P.E., & Easton, C. (2013). The effects of a single dose of concentrated beetroot juice on performance in trained flatwater kayakers. International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23(5), 498506. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.23.5.498

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muggeridge, D.J., Howe, C.C., Spendiff, O., Pedlar, C., James, P.E., & Easton, C. (2014). A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(1), 143150. PubMed ID: 23846159 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a1dc51

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyakayiru, J., Jonvik, K.L., Trommelen, J., Pinckaers, P.J., Senden, J.M., van Loon, L.J., & Verdijk, L.B. (2017). Beetroot juice supplementation improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Nutrients, 9(3), 314. doi:10.3390/nu9030314

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nybäck, L., Glännerud, C., Larsson, G., Weitzberg, E., Shannon, O.M., & McGawley, K. (2017). Physiological and performance effects of nitrate supplementation during roller-skiing in normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Nitric Oxide, 70, 18. PubMed ID: 28782598 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2017.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pawlak-Chaouch, M., Boissière, J., Munyaneza, D., Gamelin, F.X., Cuvelier, G., Berthoin, S., & Aucouturier, J. (2019). Beetroot juice does not enhance supramaximal intermittent exercise performance in elite endurance athletes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38(8), 729738. PubMed ID: 31084516 doi:10.1080/07315724.2019.1601601

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porcelli, S., Ramaglia, M., Bellistri, G., Pavei, G., Pugliese, L., Montorsi, M., … Marzorati, M. (2015). Aerobic fitness affects the exercise performance responses to nitrate supplementation. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 16431651. PubMed ID: 25412295 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000577

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rokkedal-Lausch, T., Franch, J., Poulsen, M.K., Thomsen, L.P., Weitzberg, E., Kamavuako, E.N., … Larsen, R.G. (2019). Chronic high-dose beetroot juice supplementation improves time trial performance of well-trained cyclists in normoxia and hypoxia. Nitric Oxide, 85, 4452. PubMed ID: 30685420 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2019.01.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shannon, O.M., Barlow, M.J., Duckworth, L., Williams, E., Wort, G., Woods, D., … O’Hara, J.P. (2017). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(4), 775785. PubMed ID: 28251402 doi:10.1007/s00421-017-3580-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shannon, O.M., Duckworth, L., Barlow, M.J., Woods, D., Lara, J., Siervo, M., & O’Hara, J.P. (2016). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances high-intensity running performance in moderate normobaric hypoxia, independent of aerobic fitness. Nitric Oxide, 59, 6370. PubMed ID: 27553127 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2016.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stellingwerff, T., Peeling, P., Garvican-Lewis, L.A., Hall, R., Koivisto, A.E., Heikura, I.A., & Burke, L.M. (2019). Nutrition and altitude: Strategies to enhance adaptation, improve performance and maintain health: A narrative review. Sports Medicine, 49(Suppl. 2), 169184. PubMed ID: 31691928 doi:10.1007/s40279-019-01159-w

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, C., Vanhatalo, A., Jell, H., Fulford, J., Carter, J., Nyman, L., … Jones, A.M. (2016). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance. Nitric Oxide, 61, 5561. PubMed ID: 27777094 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2016.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wickham, K.A., & Spriet, L.L. (2019). No longer beeting around the bush: A review of potential sex differences with dietary nitrate supplementation. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 44(9), 915924. doi:10.1139/apnm-2019-0063

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wylie, L.J., Bailey, S.J., Kelly, J., Blackwell, J.R., Vanhatalo, A., & Jones, A.M. (2016). Influence of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent exercise performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(2), 415425. PubMed ID: 26614506 doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3296-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wylie, L.J., Kelly, J., Bailey, S.J., Blackwell, J.R., Skiba, P.F., Winyard, P.G., … Jones, A.M. (2013a). Beetroot juice and exercise: Pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(3), 325336. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00372.2013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wylie, L.J., Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Jackman, S.R., Ermιdis, G., Kelly, J., … Jones, A.M. (2013b). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(7), 16731684. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2589-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 4456 1084 87
PDF Downloads 1811 300 32