A Short-Term Low-Fiber Diet Reduces Body Mass in Healthy Young Men: Implications for Weight-Sensitive Sports

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

Click name to view affiliation

Wee Lun FooResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Wee Lun Foo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jake D. HarrisonResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Jake D. Harrison in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Frank T. MhizhaResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Frank T. Mhizha in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Carl Langan-EvansResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Carl Langan-Evans in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
James P. MortonResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by James P. Morton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jamie N. PughResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Jamie N. Pugh in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Jose L. AretaResearch Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Jose L. Areta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
Restricted access

Athletes from weight-sensitive sports are reported to consume low-fiber diets (LOW) to induce acute reductions in body mass (BM). However, evidence supporting their efficacy is anecdotal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of a LOW on acute changes in BM. Nineteen healthy males (32 ± 10 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 77.5 ± 8.1 kg) consumed their habitual diet (∼30 g fiber/day) for 7 consecutive days followed by 4 days of a LOW (<10 g fiber/day) that was matched for energy and macronutrient content. Participants also matched their daily exercise load during LOW to that completed during habitual diet (p = .669, average 257 ± 141 arbitrary units). BM was significantly reduced in LOW versus habitual diet after 4 days (Δ = 0.40 ± 0.77 kg or 0.49% ± 0.91%, p < .05, effect size [ES] [95% confidence interval] = −0.53 [−1.17, 0.12]) and on the morning of Day 5 (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.83 kg or 0.74% ± 0.99%, p < .01, ES = −0.69 [−1.34, −0.03]). LOW resulted in moderately higher hunger (Δ = 5 ± 9 mm, p = .015, ES = 0.55 [−0.09, 1.20]), a decline in stool frequency from 2 ± 0 to 1 ± 0 bowel movements per day (p = .012, ES = 0.64 [−0.02, 1.29]) and stool softness decrease (p = .005). Nonetheless, participants reported the diet to be tolerable (n = 18/19) and were willing to repeat it (n = 16/19). Data demonstrate for the first time that consumption of a short-term LOW induces reductions in BM.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Asnicar, F., Leeming, E.R., Dimidi, E., Mazidi, M., Franks, P.W., Al Khatib, H., Valdes, A.M., Davies, R., Bakker, E., Francis, L., Chan, A., Gibson, R., Hadjigeorgiou, G., Wolf, J., Spector, T.D., Segata, N., & Berry, S.E. (2021). Blue poo: Impact of gut transit time on the gut microbiome using a novel marker. Gut, 70(9), 16651674. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323877

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bendezú, R.A., Mego, M., Monclus, E., Merino, X., Accarino, A., Malagelada, J.R., Navazo, I., & Azpiroz, F. (2017). Colonic content: Effect of diet, meals, and defecation. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 29(2). e12930. https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12930

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borg, G.A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14(5), 377381.

  • Burke, L.M., Jeukendrup, A.E., Jones, A.M., & Mooses, M. (2019). Contemporary nutrition strategies to optimize performance in distance runners and race walkers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(2), 117129. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, L.M., Slater, G.J., Matthews, J.J., Langan-Evans, C., & Horswill, C.A. (2021). ACSM expert consensus statement on weight loss in weight-category sports. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 20(4), 199217. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000831

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, E., Chen, L., Wang, F., Zhang, W., Cai, X., & Cao, G. (2020). Low-residue versus clear liquid diet before colonoscopy: An updated meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Medicine, 99(49), e23541. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023541

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, C., Florhaug, J.A., Franklin, J., Gottschall, L., Hrovatin, L.A., Parker, S., Doleshal, P., & Dodge, C. (2001). A new approach to monitoring exercise training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(1), 109115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, S.K., Rossi, M., Bajka, B., & Whelan, K. (2021). Dietary fibre in gastrointestinal health and disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 18(2), 101116. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-00375-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graff, J., Brinch, K., & Madsen, J.L. (2001). Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects. Clinical Physiology, 21(2), 253259. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2281.2001.00308.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, K.D., Guo, J., Courville, A.B., Boring, J., Brychta, R., Chen, K.Y., Darcey, V., Forde, C.G., Gharib, A.M., Gallagher, I., Howard, R., Joseph, P.V., Milley, L., Ouwerkerk, R., Raisinger, K., Rozga, I., Schick, A., Stagliano, M., Torres, S., . . . Chung, S.T. (2021). Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad libitum energy intake. Nature Medicine, 27(2), 344353. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-01209-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holte, K., Nielsen, K.G., Madsen, J.L., & Kehlet, H. (2004). Physiologic effects of bowel preparation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 47(9), 13971402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-0592-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, W.G. (2003). A new view of statistics. Sportscience.

  • Langan-Evans, C., Reale, R., Sullivan, J., & Martin, D. (2021). Nutritional considerations for female athletes in weight category sports. European Journal of Sport Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1936655

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, Y.Y., Erdogan, A., & Rao, S.S.C. (2014). How to assess regional and whole gut transit time with wireless motility capsule. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 20(2), 265270. https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm.2014.20.2.265

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lijoi, D., Ferrero, S., Mistrangelo, E., Casa, I.D., Crosa, M., Remorgida, V., & Alessandri, F. (2009). Bowel preparation before laparoscopic gynaecological surgery in benign conditions using a 1-week low fibre diet: A surgeon blind, randomized and controlled trial. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 280(5), 713718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-009-0986-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madigan, C.D., Daley, A.J., Lewis, A.L., Aveyard, P., & Jolly, K. (2015). Is self-weighing an effective tool for weight loss: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 104. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0267-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, C.K., Han, H., Coulon, S.M., Allen, H.R., Champagne, C.M., & Anton, S.D. (2009). A novel method to remotely measure food intake of free-living individuals in real time: The remote food photography method. The British Journal of Nutrition, 101(3), 446456.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKay, A.K.A., Stellingwerff, T., Smith, E.S., Martin, D.T., Mujika, I., Goosey-Tolfrey, V.L., Sheppard, J., & Burke, L.M. (2022). Defining training and performance caliber: A participant classification framework. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 17(2), 317331https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2021-0451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monro, J.A. (2000). Faecal bulking index: A physiological basis for dietary management of bulk in the distal colon. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 9(2), 7481. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.2000.00155.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Donnell, L.J., Virjee, J., & Heaton, K.W. (1990). Detection of pseudodiarrhoea by simple clinical assessment of intestinal transit rate. BMJ, 300(6722), 439440.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, B.A., Sturm, K., MacIntosh, C.G., Feinle, C., Horowitz, M., & Chapman, I.M. (2004). Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(2), 212218. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601768

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, K.E., & Hopkins, W.G. (2020). Determinants of cycling performance: A review of the dimensions and features regulating performance in elite cycling competitions. Sports Medicine—Open, 6(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-00252-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reale, R., Slater, G., & Burke, L.M. (2017). Acute-weight-loss strategies for combat sports and applications to Olympic success. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(2), 142151. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reale, R., Slater, G., & Burke, L.M. (2018). Weight management practices of Australian Olympic combat sport athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(4), 459466. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0553

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reale, R., Slater, G., Cox, G.R., Dunican, I.C., & Burke, L.M. (2018). The effect of water loading on acute weight loss following fluid restriction in combat sports athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28(6), 565573. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0183

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sender, R., Fuchs, S., & Milo, R. (2016). Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLoS Biology, 14(8), e1002533. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephen, A.M., & Cummings, J.H. (1980a). Mechanism of action of dietary fibre in the human colon. Nature, 284(5753), 283284. https://doi.org/10.1038/284283a0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephen, A.M., & Cummings, J.H. (1980b). The microbial contribution to human faecal mass. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 13(1), 4556. https://doi.org/10.1099/00222615-13-1-45

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanhauwaert, E., Matthys, C., Verdonck, L., & De Preter, V. (2015). Low-residue and low-fiber diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Advances in Nutrition, 6(6), 820827. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.009688

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wanders, A.J., van den Borne, J.J.G.C., de Graaf, C., Hulshof, T., Jonathan, M.C., Kristensen, M., Mars, M., Schols, H.A., & Feskens, E.J.M. (2011). Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 12(9), 724739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2071 2071 307
Full Text Views 91 91 10
PDF Downloads 127 127 10