Anthocyanin-Rich Blackcurrant Extract Preserves Gastrointestinal Barrier Permeability and Reduces Enterocyte Damage but Has No Effect on Microbial Translocation and Inflammation After Exertional Heat Stress

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Ben J. Lee Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom

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Tessa R. Flood Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Ania M. Hiles Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Ella F. Walker Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Lucy E.V. Wheeler Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Kimberly M. Ashdown Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Mark E.T. Willems Institute of Sport, Nursing and Allied Health, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom

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Rianne Costello Centre for Nutrition and Health, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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Luke D. Greisler Department of Exercise Science, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA

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Phebe A. Romano Department of Exercise Science, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA

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Garrett W. Hill Department of Exercise Science, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA

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Matthew R. Kuennen Department of Exercise Science, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA

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This study investigated the effects of 7 days of 600 mg/day anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract intake on small intestinal permeability, enterocyte damage, microbial translocation, and inflammation following exertional heat stress. Twelve recreationally active men (maximal aerobic capacity = 55.6 ± 6.0 ml·kg−1·min−1) ran (70% VO2max) for 60 min in an environmental chamber (34 °C, 40% relative humidity) on two occasions (placebo/blackcurrant, randomized double-blind crossover). Permeability was assessed from a 4-hr urinary excretion of lactulose and rhamnose and expressed as a ratio of lactulose/rhamnose. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and 20, 60, and 240 min after exercise to measure enterocyte damage (intestinal fatty acid-binding protein); microbial translocation (soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein); and interleukins 6, interleukins 10, and interleukins 1 receptor antagonist. Exercise increased rectal temperature (by ∼2.8 °C) and heart rate (by ∼123 beats/min) in each condition. Blackcurrant supplementation led to a ∼12% reduction in lactulose/rhamnose ratio (p < .0034) and enterocyte damage (∼40% reduction in intestinal fatty acid-binding protein area under the curve; p < .0001) relative to placebo. No between-condition differences were observed immediately after exercise for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (mean, 95% confidence interval [CI]; +80%, 95% CI [+61%, +99%]); soluble CD14 (+37%, 95% CI [+22%, +51%]); interleukins 6 (+494%, 95% CI [+394%, +690%]); interleukins 10 (+288%, 95% CI [+105%, +470%]); or interleukins 1 receptor antagonist (+47%, 95% CI [+13%, +80%]; all time main effects). No between-condition differences for these markers were observed after 60 or 240 min of recovery. Blackcurrant extract preserves the GI barrier; however, at subclinical levels, this had no effect on microbial translocation and downstream inflammatory processes.

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