The Effects of an Acute Dose of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on 5-km Running Performance

Click name to view affiliation

Samantha L. Moss Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Samantha L. Moss in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0231-2708 *
,
Edward Brindley Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Edward Brindley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kevin Enright Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England

Search for other papers by Kevin Enright in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1775-6392
,
Jamie Highton Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Jamie Highton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1715-4252
, and
Richard Bott Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Richard Bott in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7842-2436
Restricted access

This study investigated the effects of an acute dose (900 mg) of New Zealand Blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on 5-km running performance, alongside associated physiological and metabolic responses. Sixteen trained male runners (age 26 ± 5 years, stature 173.4 ± 7.3 cm, body mass 73.7 ± 6.9 kg, maximal oxygen consumption [V˙O2max] 55.4 ± 6.1 ml·kg−1·min−1) ingested either capsules containing NZBC extract (3 × 300 mg CurraNZ, 315 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo (3 × 300 mg gluten-free flour) 2 hr before exercise in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Performance time, physiological, and metabolic responses were assessed in a 5-km time trial, preceded by 10-min exercise at the lactate threshold on a treadmill. NZBC extract did not alter the physiological or metabolic responses to exercise at the lactate threshold (oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, minute ventilation, carbohydrate oxidation, fat oxidation, heart rate, blood lactate, or rating of perceived exertion, p > .05). The 5-km time trial was completed in a faster time in the NZBC extract condition compared with placebo (NZBC: 1,308.96 ± 122.36 s, placebo: 1,346.33 ± 124.44, p = .001, d = −0.23, confidence interval range = [−0.46, 0.00 s]). No differences in physiological or metabolic responses were apparent between conditions for the 5-km time trial (p > .05). Ingesting 900 mg of NZBC extract as an acute dose improves performance in trained male runners without altering physiological or metabolic responses to exercise. Further research is needed to assess a wider range of possible mechanisms (e.g., cardiovascular function, metabolite profiles) to advance insight into improved performance following supplementation.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Alvarez-Suarez, J.M., Giampieri, F., Tulipani, S., Casoli, T., Di Stefano, G., González-Paramás, A.M., ... Battino, M. (2014). One-month strawberry-rich anthocyanin supplementation ameliorates cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress markers and platelet activation in humans. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25(3), 289294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.11.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bassett, D.R., & Howley, E.T. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(1), 7084. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200001000-00012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borg, G., Hassmén, P., & Lagerström, M. (1987). Perceived exertion related to heart rate and blood lactate during arm and leg exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 56, 679685. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00424810

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braakhuis, A.J., Somerville, V.X., & Hurst, R.D. (2020). The effect of New Zealand blackcurrant on sport performance and related biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-020-00354-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Close, G.L., Kasper, A.M., & Morton, J.P. (2019). From paper to podium: Quantifying the translational potential of performance nutrition research. Sports Medicine, 49(Suppl. 1), S25S37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-1005-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Blacker, S.D., & Willems, M.E.T. (2015). New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(11), 23572365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Gault, M.L., Edwards, V.C., & Willems, M.E.T. (2017a). Cardiovascular function during supine rest in endurance-trained males with New Zealand blackcurrant: A dose–response study. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(2), 247254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3512-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Gault, M.L., Edwards, V.C., & Willems, M.E.T. (2017b). Dose effects of New Zealand blackcurrant on substrate oxidation and physiological responses during prolonged cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(6), 12071216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3607-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Gault, M.L., & Willems, M.E.T. (2017c). Blackcurrant alters physiological responses and femoral artery diameter during sustained isometric contraction. Nutrients, 9(6), Article 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060556

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, M.D., & Willems, M.E.T. (2019). Dietary anthocyanins: A review of the exercise performance effects and related physiological responses. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(3), 322330. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0088

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cortez, R.E., & Gonzalez de Mejia, E. (2019). Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum): A review on chemistry, processing, and health benefits. Journal of Food Science, 84(9), 23872401. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14781

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dantas, J.L., & Doria, C. (2015). Detection of the lactate threshold in runners: What is the ideal speed to start an incremental test? Journal of Human Kinetics, 45(1), 217224. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De la Cruz, A.A., Hilbert, G., Mengin, V., Rivière, C., Ollat, N., Vitrac, C., ... Richard, T. (2013). Anthocyanin phytochemical profiles and anti-oxidant activities of Vitis candicans and Vitis doaniana. Phytochemical Analysis, 24(5), 446452. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.2447

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, J., Clark, T., Newman-Judd, K., Arnold, J., & Steele, J. (2017). Intra-subject variability of 5 km time trial performance completed by competitive trained runners. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57(1), 139146. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0055

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frayn, K.N. (1983). Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(2), 628634. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1983.55.2.628

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fryer, S., Paterson, C., Perkins, I.C., Gloster, C., Willems, M.E.T., & Potter, J.A. (2020). New Zealand Blackcurrant extract enhances muscle oxygenation during forearm exercise in intermediate-level rock climbers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 30(4), 258263. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0365

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, W.G., Marshall, S.W., Batterham, A.M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 312. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurst, R.D., Lyall, K.A., Roberts, J.M., Perthaner, A., Wells, R.W., Cooney, J.M., ... Hurst, S.M. (2019). Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, Article 73. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00073

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.M. (2014). Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Sports Medicine, 44(Suppl. 1), 3545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0149-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.M., Carter, H., & Doust, J.H. (1999). A disproportionate increase in VO2 coincident with lactate threshold during treadmill exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(9), 12991306. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199909000-00011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.M., & Doust, J.H. (1996). A 1% treadmill grade most accurately reflects the energetic cost of outdoor running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 14(4), 321327. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419608727717

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keane, K.M., Bailey, S.J., Vanhatalo, A., Jones, A.M., & Howatson, G. (2018). Effects of montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus Cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28(7), 17461756. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13088

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keane, K.M., George, T.W., Constantinou, C.L., Brown, M.A., Clifford, T., & Howatson, G. (2016). Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus Cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(6), 15311539. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.123869

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khoo, H.E., Azlan, A., Tang, S.T., & Lim, S.M. (2017). Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: Colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food & Nutrition Research, 61(1), Article 1361779. https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1361779

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knapik, J.J., Steelman, R.A., Hoedebecke, S.S., Austin, K.G., Farina, E.K., & Lieberman, H.R. (2016). Prevalence of dietary supplement use by athletes: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(1), 103123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0387-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, D.T., Wang, P.P., Luo, Y.H., Zhao, M.Y., & Chen, F. (2017). Health benefits of anthocyanins and molecular mechanisms: Update from recent decade. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(8), 17291741. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1030064

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsumoto, H., Takenami, E., Iwasaki-Kurashige, K., Osada, T., Katsumura, T., & Hamaoka, T. (2005). Effects of blackcurrant anthocyanin intake on peripheral muscle circulation during typing work in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(1–2), 3645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1279-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montanari, S., Blacker, S.D., & Willems, M.E.T. (2023). Acute effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on cycling time-trial are performance dependent in endurance-trained cyclists: A home-based study. Sports, 11(5), Article 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11050093

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montanari, S., Sahin, M.A., Lee, B.J., Blacker, S.D., & Willems, M.E.T. (2020). No effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on physiological and performance responses in trained male cyclists undertaking repeated testing across a week period. Sports, 8(8), Article 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8080114

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morehen, J.C., Clarke, J., Batsford, J., Barrow, S., Brown, A.D., Stewart, C.E., ... Close, G.L. (2021). Montmorency tart cherry juice does not reduce markers of muscle soreness, function and inflammation following professional male rugby League match-play. European Journal of Sport Science, 21(7), 10031012. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1797181

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, C.A., Cook, M.D., & Willems, M.E.T. (2017). Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on repeated cycling time trial performance. Sports, 5(2), Article 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers, S.K., & Jackson, M.J. (2008). Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4), 12431276. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00031.2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strauss, J.A., Willems, M.E.T., & Shepherd, S.O. (2018). New Zealand blackcurrant extract enhances fat oxidation during prolonged cycling in endurance-trained females. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 118(6), 12651272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3858-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willems, M.E.T., Myers, S.D., Gault, M.L., & Cook, M.D. (2015). Beneficial physiological effects with blackcurrant intake in endurance athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(4), 367374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0233

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winter, E.M. (2006). Sport and exercise physiology testing guidelines. Vol. I, Sport testing. Routledge.

  • Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E., & Prior, R.L. (2006). Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(11), 40694075. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060300L

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, J.W., Ikeda, K., & Yamori, Y. (2004). Upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by cyanidin-3-glucoside, a typical anthocyanin pigment. Hypertension, 44(2), 217222. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000135868.38343.c6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zamora-Ros, R., Knaze, V., Luján-Barroso, L., Slimani, N., Romieu, I., Touillaud, M., ... González, C.A. (2011). Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. British Journal of Nutrition, 106(7), 10901099. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511001437

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziberna, L., Lunder, M., Tramer, F., Drevensek, G., & Passamonti, S. (2013). The endothelial plasma membrane transporter bilitranslocase mediates rat aortic vasodilation induced by anthocyanins. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 23(1), 6874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2011.02.005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1759 1759 145
Full Text Views 193 193 5
PDF Downloads 103 103 16